Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Oxalate Content in Rhodesgrass, Guineagrass and Sudangrass
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization on Oxalate Content in Rhodesgrass, Guineagrass and Sudangrass
Rahman, M.M.; Yamamoto, M.; Niimi, M.; Kawamura, O.;
  PDF(new window)
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) level on the dry matter (DM) yield, N concentration and oxalate content of some tropical grasses, namely Rhodesgrass (Chloris gayana), Guineagrass (Panicum maximum) and Sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare). Three levels of N as urea were applied (Standard- 260, - 540 and- 1,060 kg N/ha for Rhodesgrass; Standard- 380, - 770 and - 1,570 kg N/ha for Guineagrass and Sudangrass) in a completely randomized design and grasses were harvested twice at approximately two-month intervals. Dry matter yield tended to be higher with increased rate of N fertilizer in all species, while further additional N ( or ) did not significantly (p>0.05) further increase DM yield, when compared with the Standard level of N fertilizer application. There was also a trend towards higher N concentration in plants as N fertilization increased in all species and it was increased significantly in Rhodesgrass and Sudangrass (p<0.05 or p<0.01, respectively). Further additional N ( or ) application showed no significant (p>0.05) differences on oxalate content in plant tissue within species, when compared with the Standard level of N. The Rhodesgrass contained 0.11, 0.13 and 0.15% soluble oxalate and 0.23, 0.25 and 0.27% total oxalate with Standard, and level of N application, respectively. The Guineagrass contained 0.54, 0.50 and 0.42% soluble oxalate and 1.60, 1.56 and 1.45% total oxalate with Standard, and level of N application, respectively. The Sudangrass contained 0.06, 0.15 and 0.12% soluble oxalate and 0.22, 0.22 and 0.21% total oxalate with Standard, and level of N application, respectively The results from this study suggest that these grasses do not use further addition of N fertilizer ( or ) to form high content of oxalate salts, when compared with the Standard level of N. In addition, the levels of oxalate present with these grasses are quite low as far as toxicity to animals is concerned.
Nitrogen Fertilization;Oxalate Content;Dry Matter Yield;Nitrogen Concentration;
 Cited by
Effect of Salinity Stress on Dry Matter Yield and Oxalate Content in Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach),;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2008. vol.21. 11, pp.1599-1603 crossref(new window)
Intake, Digestibility In vivo, N Utilization and In sacco Dry Matter Degradability of Grass Silage Harvested at Three Stages of Maturity,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2009. vol.22. 2, pp.225-231 crossref(new window)
Interactive Effects of Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilization on Oxalate Content in Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum),;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2010. vol.23. 6, pp.719-723 crossref(new window)
Oxalate Accumulation in Forage Plants: Some Agronomic, Climatic and Genetic Aspects,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2011. vol.24. 3, pp.439-448 crossref(new window)
Schumach), Grassland Science, 2008, 54, 3, 146  crossref(new windwow)
Ahmed, A. K. and K. A. Johnson. 2000. The effect of the ammonium: nitrate nitrogen ratio, total nitrogen, salinity (NaCl) and calcium on the oxalate levels of Tetragonia tetragonioides Pallas. Kunz. J. Horti. Sci. Biotech. 75:533-538.

Allison, M. J., E. T. Littledike and L. F. James. 1977. Changes in ruminal oxalate degradation rates associated with adaptation of oxalate ingestion. J. Anim. Sci. 45:1173-1179.

AOAC. 1990. Official Method of Analysis. pp. 66-88. 15th ed. Washington, DC. USA.

Cymbaluk, N. F., J. D. Millar and D. A. Christensen. 1986. Oxalate concentration in feeds and its metabolism by ponies. Canadian J. Anim. Sci. 66:1107-1116. crossref(new window)

Dhillon, K. S., B. S. Paul, R. S. Bajwa and J. Singh. 1971. A preliminary report on a peculiar type of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) (Pusa giant) poisoning in buffalo calves. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 41:1034-1036.

Elphinstone, G. D. 1981. Pastures and fodder crops for horses in southern coastal Queensland. Queensland Agric. J. 107:122-126.

Hegarty, M. P. 1982. Nutritional limits to animal production from pastures (Ed. J. B. Hacker). Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux CSIRO. pp. 133-150.

Inosaka, M. 1989. "Tropical Grasses" in Nogyo Gijutsu Taikei. Chikusan Hen, Shiryo Sakumotsu, Nobunkyo Co. Ltd., Tokyo, pp. 638-645 (In Japanese).

James, L. F., C. S. Joseph and E. B. John. 1967. In vitro degradation of oxalate and of cellulose by rumen ingesta from sheep fed Halogeton glomeratus. J. Anim. Sci. 26:1438.

Ji, X. M. 2004. The physiological and biochemical basis of oxalate metabolism as regulated by different nitrogen forms in rice. PhD Thesis, South China Agricultural University Guangzhou, China (in Chinese with an English abstract).

Johnson, C. R., B. A. Reiling, P. Mislevy and M. B. Hall. 2001. Effects of nitrogen fertilization and harvest date on yield, digestibility, fiber and protein fractions of tropical grasses. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2439-2448.

Jones, R. J., A. A. Seawright and D. A. Little. 1970. Oxalate poisoning in animals grazing the tropical grass Setaria sphacelata. J. Aust. Inst. Agric. Sci. 36:41.

Jones, R. J. and C. W. Ford. 1972. Some factors affecting the oxalate content of the tropical grass (Setaria sphacelata). Aust. J. Experi. Agric. Anim. Husb. 12:400-406. crossref(new window)

Khan, R. I., M. R. Alam and M. R. Amin. 1999. Effect of season and fertilizer on species composition and nutritive value of native grasses. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:1222-1227.

Lee, J. S., J. H. Ahn, I. H. Jo and D. A. Kim. 1996. Effects of cutting frequency and nitrogen fertilization on dry matter yield of Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) in uncultivated rice paddy. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 9:737-741.

McKenzie, R. A. 1985. Poisoning of horses by oxalate in grasses. In: Plant Toxicology, Proceedings of the Australian-USA Poisonous Plant Symposium, Brisbane, Australia, quoted by Nutr. Abstr. 56:3446.

McKenzie, R. A., A. M. Bell, G. J. Storie, F. J. Keenman, K. M. Cornack and S. G. Grant. 1988. Acute oxalate poisoning of sheep by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Aust. Vet. J. 65:26.

Palaniswamy, U. R., B. B. Bible and R. J. McAvoy. 2004. Oxalic acid concentrations in Purslane (Portulaca oleraceae L.) is altered by the stage of harvest and the nitrate to ammonium ratios in hydroponics. Scientia Horticulturae 102:267-275. crossref(new window)

Penney, D. C., S. S. Malhi and L. Kryzanowski. 1990. Effect of rate and source of N fertilizer on yield, quality and N recovery of bromegrass grown for hay. Fertilizer Research 25:159-166. crossref(new window)

Rahman, M. M., M. Niimi, Y. Ishii and O. Kawamura. 2006. Effects of season, variety and botanical fractions on oxalate content of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Grassl. Sci. 52:161-166. crossref(new window)

Rahman, M. M., M. Niimi and O. Kawamura. 2007. Simple method for determination of oxalic acid in forages using high-performance liquid chromatography. Grassl. Sci. 53:201-204. crossref(new window)

Sarwar, M. and Mahr-un-Nisa. 1999. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and stage of maturity of Mottgrass (Pennisetum purpureum) on its chemical composition, dry matter intake, ruminal characteristics and digestibility in Buffalo bulls. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:1035-1039.

Schubert, S. and F. Yan. 1997. Nitrate and ammonium nutrition of plants: effects on acid/base balance and adaptation of root cell plasmalemma $H^{+}$ ATPhase. Z. Pflanzenernahr. Bodenk. 160: 275-281. crossref(new window)

Sidhu, P. K., D. V. Joshi and A. K. Srivastava. 1996. Oxalate toxicity in ruminants fed overgrown napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum). Indian J. Anim. Nutr. 13:181-183.

Steel, R. G. D. and J. H. Torrie. 1984. Principles and procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill International Book Company, New York.

Ward, G., L. H. Harbers and J. J. Blaha. 1979. Calcium containing crystals in alfalfa: their fate in cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 62:715-722. crossref(new window)

Weir, B. L., K. N. Paulson and O. A. Lorenz. 1972. The effect of ammoniacal nitrogen on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and radish (Raphanus sativus) plants. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 36:462-465. crossref(new window)

Williams, M. C., B. J. Smith and R. V. Lopez. 1991. Effect of nitrogen, sodium and potassium on nitrate and oxalate concentration in kikuyugrass. Weed Tech. 5:553-556.

Xu, H. W., X. M. Ji, Z. H. He, W. P. Shi, G. H. Zhu and J. K. Niu. 2006. Oxalate accumulation and regulation is independent of glycolate oxidase in rice leaves. J. Exp. Bot. 57:1899-1908. crossref(new window)