Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Ruminal Protein Degradation Characteristics of Cell Mass from Lysine Production
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Ruminal Protein Degradation Characteristics of Cell Mass from Lysine Production
Seo, S.; Kim, H.J.; Lee, S.Y.; Ha, Jong K.;
  PDF(new window)
Chemical analysis and in vitro studies were conducted to investigate the nutritive value for ruminants of cell mass from lysine production (CMLP) which is a by-product of the lysine manufacturing process. Proximate analysis, protein fractionation, and in vitro protein degradation using protease from Streptomyces griseus and strained ruminal fluid were carried out to estimate ruminal protein degradability of CMLP with two reference feedstuffs-soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Amino acid composition and pepsin-HCl degradability were also determined to evaluate postruminal availability. CMLP contained 67.8% crude protein with a major portion being soluble form (45.4% CP) which was composed of mainly ammonium nitrogen (81.8% soluble CP). The amount of nucleic acids was low (1.15% DM). The total amount of amino acids contained in CMLP was 40.60% DM, which was lower than SBM (47.69% DM) or FM (54.08% DM). CMLP was composed of mainly fraction A and fraction B2, while the protein fraction in SBM was mostly B2 and FM contained high proportions of B2 and B3 fractions. The proportion of B3 fraction, slowly degradable protein, in CP was the highest in fish meal (23.34%), followed by CMLP (7.68%) and SBM (1.46%). CMLP was degraded up to 51.40% at 18 h of incubation with Streptomyces protease, which was low compared to FM (55.23%) and SBM (83.01%). This may be due to the insoluble portion of CMLP protein being hardly degradable by the protease. The in vitro fermentation by strained ruminal fluid showed that the amount of soluble fraction was larger in CMLP (40.6%) than in SBM (17.8%). However, because the degradation rate constant of the potentially degradable fraction of CMLP (2.0%/h) was lower than that of SBM (5.8%/h), the effective ruminal protein degradability of CMLP (46.95%) was slightly lower than SBM (53.77%). Unavailable fraction in the rumen was higher in CMLP (34.0%) compared to SBM (8.8%). In vitro CP degradability of CMLP by pepsin was 80.37%, which was lower than SBM (94.42%) and FM (89.04%). The evaluation of protein degradability using different approaches indicated that soluble protein in CMLP may supply a large amount of ammonia in the rumen while insoluble protein can be by-passed from microbial attacks due to its low degradability. The results from this study suggest that CMLP can be used as a protein supplement to ruminants for supplying both non-protein nitrogen to rumen microbes and rumen undegradable protein to the host animal.
Cell Mass from Lysine Production;Ruminal Protein Degradability;Protein Fraction;
 Cited by
Degradation Kinetics of Carbohydrate Fractions of Ruminant Feeds Using Automated Gas Production Technique,Seo, S.;Lee, Sang C.;Lee, S.Y.;Seo, J.G.;Ha, Jong K.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2009. vol.22. 3, pp.356-364 crossref(new window)
Nitrogen Utilization of Cell Mass from Lysine Production in Goats,Seo, S.;Kim, H.J.;Lee, S.Y.;Ha, Jong K.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2008. vol.21. 4, pp.561-566 crossref(new window)
Anupama and P. Ravindra. 2000. Value-added food: Single cell protein. Biotechnol. Adv. 18:459-479. crossref(new window)

AOAC. 1984. Official methods of analysis. 14th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.

Bohnert, D. W., B. T. Larson, M. L. Bauer, A. F. Branco, K. R. McLeod, D. L. Harmon and G. E. Mitchell. 1999. Nutritional evaluation of poultry by-product meal as a protein source for ruminants: Small intestinal amino acid flow and disappearance in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1000-1007.

Broderick, G. A., N. De Leon and Y. Nakamura. 2000. Potential of fermentation byproducts as nitrogen supplements for lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2548-2556. crossref(new window)

Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130-132.

England, M. L., G. A. Broderick, R. D. Shaver and D. K. Combs. 1997. Comparison of in situ and in vitro techniques for measuring ruminal degradation of animal by-product proteins. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2925-2931. crossref(new window)

Fox, D. G., L. O. Tedeschi, T. P. Tylutki, J. B. Russell, M. E. Van Amburgh, L. E. Chase, A. N. Pell and T. R. Overton. 2004. The Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 112:29-78. crossref(new window)

France, J., M. S. Dhanoa, M. K. Theodorou, S. J. Lister, D. R. Davies and D. Isac. 1993. A model to interpret gas accumulation profiles associated with in vitro degradation of ruminant feeds. J. Theor. Biol. 163:99-111. crossref(new window)

Ha, J. K., H. D. Kim, S. S. Shim, J. H. Lee, Y. G. Ko, B. O. Kwack, S. S. Lee, W. Y. Kim and I. K. Han. 1998. Studies on nutritive value of lysine fermentation by-product as a protein source for ruminants I. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 22:371-380.

Hannon, K. and A. Trenkle. 1990. Evaluation of condensed molasses fermentation solubles as a nonprotein nitrogen source for ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2634-2641.

Hsu, J. C., T. W. Perry and M. T. Mohler. 1984. Utilization of potato-corn biosolids single-cell protein and potato-corn primary waste by beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 58:1292-1299.

Johnson, D. E. and R. L. Remillard. 1983. Nutrient digestibility of brewers single cell protein. J. Anim. Sci. 56:735-739.

Kellems, R. O., M. S. Aseltine and D. C. Church. 1981. Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills - laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility. J. Anim. Sci. 53:1601-1608.

Kim, H. K., C. W. Kim, J. K. Ha and S. Y. Yang. 1997. Condensed molasses fermentation solubles from monosodium glutamate production as a liquid protein supplement for ruminants 1. Chemical composition and effects of different levels of CMS on the nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation in sheep. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed 21:207-218.

Kondo, Makoto, Kazumi Kita and Hiro-omi Yokota. 2007. Ensiled or oven-dried green tea by-product as protein feedstuffs: Effects of tannin on nutritive value in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:880-886.

Krishnamoorthy, U., C. J. Sniffen, M. D. Stern and P. J. Vansoest. 1983. Evaluation of a mathematical model of rumen digestion and an in vitro simulation of rumen proteolysis to estimate the rumen undegraded nitrogen content of feedstuffs. Br. J. Nutr. 50:555-568. crossref(new window)

Kumar, R., D. N. Kamra, Neeta Agarwal and L. C. Chaudhary. 2007. In vitro methanogenesis and fermentation of feeds containing oil seed cakes with rumen liquor of buffalo. Asian- Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1196-1200.

Lee, J. H., B. O. Kwack, H. D. Kim, S. S. Shim, Y. G. Ko, S. S. Lee, W. Y. Kim, J. K. Ha and I. K. Han. 1998. Studies on nutritive value of lysine fermentation by-product as a protein source for ruminants II. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 22:381-390.

Licitra, G., T. M. Hernandez and P. J. VanSoest. 1996. Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:347-358. crossref(new window)

Licitra, G., F. Lauria, S. Carpino, I. Schadt, C. J. Sniffen and P. J. Van Soest. 1998. Improvement of the streptomyces griseus method for degradable protein in ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:1-10. crossref(new window)

Licitra, G., P. J. Van Soest, I. Schadt, S. Carpino and C. J. Sniffen. 1999. Influence of the concentration of the protease from streptomyces griseus relative to ruminal protein degradability. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 77:99-113. crossref(new window)

Liu, Z. J. and N. P. McMeniman. 2001. Effect of supplementation with a by-product of molasses fermentation or a non-protein nitrogen/mineral mix on feed intake and microbial protein supply in sheep consuming chopped oat (Avena sativa) hay. Small Rumin. Res. 41:229-233. crossref(new window)

Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-55.

National Research Council. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Orskov, E. R. and I. Mcdonald. 1979. Estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. J. Agric. Sci. 92:499- 503. crossref(new window)

Piao, X. S., Y. K. Han, S. H. Bae, H. Lee and I. K. Han. 1998. Evaluation of CM (cell mass from lysine fermentation) as an alternative protein source in broiler diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 11:550-558.

Russell, J. B., J. D. Oconnor, D. G. Fox, P. J. Vansoest and C. J. Sniffen. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets .1. Ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3551-3561.

SAS Institute Inc. 2002. User's guide: Statistics, version 9th edn. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.

Schofield, P., R. E. Pitt and A. N. Pell. 1994. Kinetics of fiber digestion from in vitro gas production. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2980- 2991.

Sedgman, C. A., J. H. B. Roy and J. Thomas. 1985a. Digestion, absorption and utilization of single-cell protein by the preruminant calf - abomasal outflow and its composition from calves given milk-substitute diets containing varying amounts of either bacterial or yeast protein. Br. J. Nutr. 53:673-689. crossref(new window)

Sedgman, C. A., J. H. B. Roy, J. Thomas, I. J. F. Stobo and P. Ganderton. 1985b. Digestion, absorption and utilization of single-cell protein by the preruminant calf - the true digestibility of milk and bacterial protein and the apparent digestibility and utilization of their constituent amino acids. Br. J. Nutr. 54:219-244. crossref(new window)

Sniffen, C. J., J. D. Oconnor, P. J. Vansoest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets .2. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.

Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland Soc. 18:104-111. crossref(new window)

Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd edn. Comstock Pub., Ithaca, NY, USA.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. crossref(new window)

Wanapat, M., C. Promkot and S. Wanapat. 2006. Effect of cassoyurea pellet as a protein source in concentrate on ruminal fementation and digestibility in cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1004-1009.

Zinn, R. A. and F. N. Owens. 1986. A rapid procedure for purine measurement and its use for estimating net ruminal protein synthesis. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 66:157-166. crossref(new window)