Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Molecular Phylogeny of the Gayal in Yunnan China Inferred from the Analysis of Cytochrome b Gene Entire Sequences
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Molecular Phylogeny of the Gayal in Yunnan China Inferred from the Analysis of Cytochrome b Gene Entire Sequences
Li, S.P.; Chang, H.; Ma, G.L.; Cheng, H.Y.;
  PDF(new window)
The gayal (Bos frontalis) in China is a very rare semi-wild and semi-domestic bovine species. There still exist remarkable divergences on the gayal's origin and taxonomic status. In the present study, the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene entire sequences (1,140 bp) of 11 gayals in Yunnan China were analyzed. Combined with other bovine Cyt b sequences cited in GenBank, the phylogenetic trees of genus Bos were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods with Bubalus bubalis as outgroup. Sequence analysis showed that, among 1,140 sites compared for 11 gayals, 95 variable sites (8.33% of all sites) and 6 different haplotypes were observed, showing abundant mitochondrial genetic diversity in gayals. Both NJ and MP trees demonstrated that gayals in this study were markedly divided into three embranchments: one embranchment clustering with Bos gaurus, another clustering with Bos taurus, and the third clustering with Bos indicus. The result of phylogenetic analysis suggested that the gayal might be the domesticated form of the gaur, and a great proportion of the gayal bloodline in China was invaded by other bovine species.
Gayal (Bos frontalis);Cytochrome b Gene;Molecular Phylogeny;
 Cited by
Molecular phylogeny and diversity of Myanmar and Bhutan mithun based on mtDNA sequences, Animal Science Journal, 2010, 82, 1, 52  crossref(new windwow)
Dominant bacterial communities in the rumen of Gayals (Bos frontalis), Yaks (Bos grunniens) and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurs) revealed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Molecular Biology Reports, 2011, 38, 8, 4863  crossref(new windwow)
Birungi, J. and P. Arctander. 2001. Molecular systematics and phylogeny of the Reduncini (Artiodactyla:Bovidae) inferred from the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. J. Mamm. Evol. 8:125-147. crossref(new window)

Browers, N., J. R. Stauffer and T. D. Kocher. 1994. Intra- and interspecific mitochondrial DNA sequence variation within two species of rock-dwelling Cichlids (Teleostei:Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 3:75-82. crossref(new window)

Deng, W., L. Wang, S. Ma, B. Jin, T. He, Z. Yang, H. Mao and M. Wanapat. 2007. Comparison of gayal (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan yellow cattle (Bos taurus): rumen function, digestibilities and nitrogen balance during feeding of pelleted lucerne (Medicago sativum). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:900-909.

Felsenstein, J. 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: an approach using the bootstrap. Evolution. 39:783-791. crossref(new window)

Giasuddin, M., K. S. Huque and J. Alam. 2003a. Reproductive potentials of gayal (Bos frontalis) under semi-intensive management. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:331-334.

Giasuddin, M. and M. R. Islam. 2003b. Physical feature, physiological character and behavior study of gayal (Bos frontalis). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1599-1603

Hassanin, A. and A. Ropiquet. 2004. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the Kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 33:896-907. crossref(new window)

Huque, K. S., M. M. Rahman and M. A. Jalil. 2001. Study on the growth pattern of gayals (Bos frontalis) and their crossbred calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1245-1249.

Irwin, D. M., T. D. Kocher and A. C. Wilson. 1991. Evolution of the cytochrome b gene of mammals. J. Mol. Evol. 32:128-144 crossref(new window)

Kikkawa, Y., H. Yonekawa and H. Suzuki. 1997. Analysis of genetic diversity of domestic water buffaloes and anoas based on variations in the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b. Anim. Genet. 28:195-201. crossref(new window)

Kumar, S., K. Tamura and M. Nei. 2004. MEGA3: Integrated software for molecular evolutionary genetics analysis and sequence alignment. Briefings in Bioinformatics 5:150-163. crossref(new window)

Ma, G. L., H. Chang, S. P. Li, H. Y. Chen, D. J. Ji, R. Q. Geng, C. F. Chang and Y. H. Li. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships and status quo of colonies for gayal based on analysis of cytochrome b gene partial sequences. Journal of Genetics and Genomics (Formerly Acta Genetica Sinica) 34:413-419.

Mao, H. M., W. D. Deng and J. K. Wen. 2005. The biology characteristics of gayal (Bos frontalis) and potential exploitation and utilization. J. Yunnan Agri. Univ. 20:258-261.

Fan, J. P., S. H. Ye, C. R. Ge, T. B. He and Y. L. Hang. 2005. Research on the meat characteristic of crossbred gayal. J. Yunnan Agric. Univ. 20:600-602.

Namikawa, T. 2005. Cattle: Why the cattle genetic diversity is widely in eastern Asia. Rep. Soc. Res. Native Livestock. 22:97-100.

Nei, M. 1987. Molecular Evolutionary Genetics. Columbia University Press, New York.

Nie, L., Y. Yu, X. Q. Zhang, G. F. Yang, J. K. Wen and Y. P. Zhang. 1999. Genetic diversity of cattle in South China as revealed by blood protein electrophoresis. Biochem. Genet. 37:257-265. crossref(new window)

Nyunt, M. M. and N. Win. 2004. Mithan (Bos frontalis) in Myanmar. Rep. Soc. Res. Native Livestock. 21:19-22.

Payne, W. J. A. 1991. Domestication: a forward step in civilization (Ed. C. G. Hickman), Cattle Genetic Resources, Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp. 51-72

Ritz, L. R., M. L. Glowatzki-Mullis, D. E. MacHugh and C. Gaillard. 2000. Phylogenetic analysis of the tribe Bovini using microsatellites. Anim. Genet. 31:178-185. crossref(new window)

Rozas, J., J. C. Sanchez-DelBarrio, X. Messeguer and R. Rozas. 2003. DnaSP, DNA polymorphism analyses by the coalescent and other methods. Bioinformatics. 19:2496-2497. crossref(new window)

San, X. N., Y. F. Chen, L. H. Luo, X. M. Cao and J. Z. Song. 1980. The karyotype analysis of gayal. Hereditas (Beijing). 2:25-27.

Simoons, F. J. 1984. Gayal or mithan (Ed. I. L. Mason), Evolution of Domesticated Animals, Longman, London, pp. 34-38

Swofford, D. L. 2000. PAUP%: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (* and other Methods), version 4.0. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass.

Tamura, K. and M. Nei. 1993. Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 10:512-526.

Tanaka, K., H. Mannen, Y. Kurosawa, K. Nozawa, M. Nishibori, Y. Yamamoto, H. Okabayashi, K. Tsunoda, T. Yamagata, Y. Suzuki, K. Kinoshita, Y. Meada, M. M. Nyunt, T. Daing, T. Hla, N. Win, T. Tur, P. Aung and A. Cho. 2004. Cytogenetic analysis of mithan in Myanmar. Rep. Soc. Res. Native Livestock. 21:123-127.

Tu, Z. C., L. Nie, Y. Yu, J. K. Wen and Y. P. Zhang. 2000. Blood protein polymorphism in B. frontalis, B. grunniens, B. taurus and B. indicus. Biochem. Genet. 38:413-416. crossref(new window)

Verkaar, E. L. C., I. J. Nijman, M. Beeke, E. Hanekamp and J. A.Lenstra. 2004. Maternal and paternal lineages in crossbreeding bovine species. Has wisent a hybrid origin? Mol. Biol. Evol. 21:1165-1170. crossref(new window)

Walker, E. P., F. Warnick and S. T. Hamlet. 1968. Mammals of the World. The Johns Hopkins Press, Balttmore.

Wall, D. A., S. K. Davis and B. M. Read. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the subfamily Bovinae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) based on ribosomal DNA. J. Mamm. 73:262-275. crossref(new window)

Williamson, G. and W. J. A. Payne. 1977. An Introduction to Animal Husbandry in the Tropics. Longman, London.

Winter, H., B. Mayer and W. Schleger. 1984. Karyotyping, red blood cells and haemoglobin typing of the mithan (Bos frontalis), its wild ancestor and its hybrids. Res. Vet. Sci. 36:276-283.

Xi, D., M. Wanapat, W. Deng, T. He, Z. Yang and H. Mao. 2007. Comparison of gayal (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan yellow cattle (Bos taurus): in vitro dry matter digestibility and gas production for a range of forages. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1208-1214.

Zardoya, R. and A. Meyer. 1996. Phylogenetic performance mitochondrial protein coding genes in resolving relationship among vertebrate. Mol. Biol. Evol. 13:933-942.