Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Histological Changes of Tissues and Cell Wall of Rice Straw Influenced by Chemical Pretreatments
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Histological Changes of Tissues and Cell Wall of Rice Straw Influenced by Chemical Pretreatments
Wang, Jia-Kun; Chen, Xiao-Lian; Liu, Jian-Xin; Wu, Yue-Ming; Ye, Jun-An;
  PDF(new window)
Sodium hydroxide (SH) or ammonium bicarbonate (AB) were applied to rice straw to investigate the effects on histological change of stem tissue or cell wall before and after in sacco degradation using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM revealed that, the parenchyma and vascular bundles were distorted by treatment with SH at 30 or 45 g/kg straw dry matter. Faultage between phloem of large vascular bundles and parenchyma occurred with further increasing SH to 60 or 75 g/kg. The cell wall in these stem tissues was crimped when observed by TEM. However, only parenchyma and large vascular tissues were slightly distorted in AB-treated stem. For untreated and AB-treated stems, the initiation of observable ruminal degradation of cell wall was prolonged from 12 h for inner parenchyma to 24 h for sclerenchyma and to 48 h for phloem of small vascular bundles, while the outer epidermis was intact even at 72 h. For SH-treated stem, however, the cell wall from all of the investigated tissues, epidermis, small vascular bundles, sclerenchyma, and parenchyma started to be degraded at 12 h incubation. These results indicate that SH treatment contracts rice straw stem leading to an improvement in rumen degradation, and that the degradation of SH-treated stem is bilateral from inner and outer surface simultaneously.
Chemical Treatment;Electron Microscope;Histological Changes;Rice Straw Stem;Rumen Degradability;
 Cited by
Mutation of Cellulose Synthase Gene Improves the Nutritive Value of Rice Straw,;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2012. vol.25. 6, pp.800-805 crossref(new window)
Akin, D. E. 1989. Histological and physiological factors affection digestibility of forages. Agron. J. 81:17-25. crossref(new window)

Akin, D. E. and D. Burdick. 1981. Relationships of different histochemical types of lignified cell wall to forage digestibility. Crop Sci. 21:577-581. crossref(new window)

Akin, D. E., D. Burdick and G. E. Michaels. 1974. Rumen bacterial interrelationships with plant tissue during degradation revealed by transmission electron microscopy. Appl. Microbiol. 27:1149-1156.

Bauchop, T. 1980. Scanning electron microscopy in the study of microbial digestion of plant fragments in the gut. In: Contemporary microbial ecology (Ed. D. C. Ellwood, J. N. Hedger, M. J. Latham). Academic Press, London, pp. 305-326.

Bergen, W. G. 1972. Rumen osmolality as a factor in feed intake control of sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 34:1054-1060.

Engels, F. M. and J. L. L. Schuurmans. 1992. Relationship between structural development of cell walls and degradation of tissues in maize stems. J. Sci. Food Agric. 59:45-51. crossref(new window)

Goto, M. and Y. Yokoe. 1996. Ammoniation of barley straw. Effect on cellulose crystallinity and water-holding capacity. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 58:239-247. crossref(new window)

Han, I. K. and W. N. Garrett. 1986. Improving the dry matter digestibility and voluntary intake of low quality roughages by various treatments: a review. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 28:199-236.

Isogai, A. and M. Usuda. 1992. X-ray diffraction and solid-state 13C-NMR analyses of celluloses treated with ammonia. Mokuzai. Gakkaishi. 38:562-569.

Lee, C. H., H. G. Sung, M. Eslami, S. Y. Lee, J. Y. Song, S. S. Lee and J. K. Ha. 2007. Effects of tween 80 pretreatment on dry matter disappearance of rice straw and cellulolytic bacterial adhesion. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1397-1401

Liu, J. X., A. Susenbeth and K. H. Sudekum. 2002. In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves. J. Anim. Sci. 80:517-524.

Liu, D., J. X. Liu, S. L. Zhu, X. J. Chen and Y. M. Wu. 2005. Histological investigation of tissues and cell wall of rice straw influenced by pretreatment with different chemicals and rumen degradation. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 14:373-387.

Meryman, H. T. 1973. Influence of certain neutral solutes on red cell membrane area and permeability during hypotonic stress. Am. J. Physiol. 225:365-371.

Migne, C., E. Grenet and J. Jamot. 1996. Microbial degradation of the apical internode of Co125 and W401 maize in the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 58:165-185. crossref(new window)

Moter, A. and U. B. Göbel. 2000. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for direct visualization of microorganisms. J. Microbiol. Methods 41:85-112. crossref(new window)

Orskov, E. R., F. D. Hovell and F. Mould. 1980. The use of the nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feedstuffs. Trop. Anim. Prod. 5:195-213.

Promkot, C., M. Wanapat and P. Rowlinson. 2007. Estimation of ruminal degradation and intestinal digestion of tropical protein resources using the nylon bag technique and the three-step in vitro procedure in dairy cattle on rice straw diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1849-1857

SAS User's Guide, 1999: Statistics, version 8. SAS Inst, Inc, Cary, NC

Shen, H. Sh., F. Sundstol, E. R. Eng and L. O. Eik. 1999. Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 3. Histological investigations by light and scanning electron microscopy. Anim. Feed Sci.Technol. 80:151-159. crossref(new window)

Steel, R. D. G. and J. H. Torrie. 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

Suksombat, W. 2004. Comparison of different alkali treatment of bagasse and rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1430-1433.

Wang, J. K., J. X. Liu, Y. M. Wu and J. A. Ye. 2006. Improvement of organic matter digestibility with changes in physical properties of rice straw by chemical treatments. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 15:147-157.

Wang, J. K., J. X. Liu, J. Y. Li, Y. M. Wu and J. A. Ye. 2007. Histological and rumen degradation changes of rice straw stem epidermis as influenced by chemical pretreatment. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 136:51-62. crossref(new window)

Wora-anu, S., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and N. Nontaso. 2007. Effect of roughage sources on cellulolytic bacteria and rumen ecology of beef cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1705-1712.