JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Galanin Infusion into the Third Ventricle on Plasma Concentrations of Metabolic Parameters in Goats Fed Diets of Different Energy Content
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Galanin Infusion into the Third Ventricle on Plasma Concentrations of Metabolic Parameters in Goats Fed Diets of Different Energy Content
Khazali, H.; Towhidi, A.; Moravej, H.; Parhizkar, A.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The goal of this study was to determine whether galanin affects the mean plasma concentrations of metabolic parameters such as thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon, glucose, fatty acid and urea in goats fed diets differing in energy content. Sixteen goats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were fed 100% and animals in groups 3 and 4 were fed 50% energy content in the diet for 20 days. After 20 days, animals in groups 1 and 3 received a daily infusion of galanin and groups 2 and 4 received a daily infusion of galanin into their third ventricle for 5 days. Blood samples were collected daily from the jugular vein before infusion on day 4 until 4 days after the last infusion of galanin. Samples were assayed for plasma T3, T4, GH, insulin and glucagon concentrations by double-antibody RIA. Glucose, fatty acid and urea concentrations were also measured. Lower dietary energy intake and infusions of 1 and galanin significantly (p<0.01) decreased the mean plasma concentrations of T3, T4, insulin and glucose and significantly (p<0.01) increased the mean plasma concentrations of GH, glucagon, fatty acid and urea of the animals in groups 3 and 4. Different dosages of the galanin infusions did not change the plasma concentrations of the metabolic parameters in the animals fed a normal dietary energy content. The results of this experiment indicated that galanin may negatively affect T3, T4, insulin and glucose and increase GH, glucagon, fatty acid and urea in goats with negative energy balance, but not in those with positive energy balance.
 Keywords
Galanin;Metabolic Hormones;Goat;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Achmadi, J., E. Pangestu and F. Wahyono. 2007. Glucose tolerance and insulin response to intravenous glucose load in sheep fed on germinated sorghum grain. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1575-1579.

2.
Agricultural and Food Research Council. 1995. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC technical committee on responses to nutrients. 2nd ed. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

3.
Amiranoff, B., A. M. Lorient, I. Lagney-Pourmir and M. Laburthe. 1988. Mechanism of galanin-inhibited insulin release. Eur. J. Biochem. 177:147-152. crossref(new window)

4.
Baratta, M., R. Saleri, C. Mascadri, D. H. Coy, A. Negro-Vilar, C. Tamanini and A. Giustina. 1997. Modulation by galanin of growth hormone and gonadotropin secretion from perifused pituitary and median eminence of prepubertal male calves. Neuroendocrinol. 66:271-277. crossref(new window)

5.
Bauer, F., L. Ginsberg, M. Venetikou, D. MacKay, J. Burrin and S. Bloom. 1986. Growth hormone release in man induced by galanin, a new hypothalamic Peptid. Lancet. 2:192-195.

6.
Cho, S. B., S. H. Cho, S. S. Chang, I. B. Chung, J. S. Lim, D. Y. Kil and Y. Y. Kim. 2006. Effects of restricted feeding on performance, carcass quality and hormone profiles in finishing barrows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1643-1648.

7.
Corwin, R. L., J. K. Robinson and J. N. Crawley. 1993. Galanin antagonists block galanin- induced feeding in the hypothalamus and amygdala of the rat. Eur. J. Neurosci. 5:1528-1533. crossref(new window)

8.
Crawley, J. N., M. C. Austin, S. M. Fiske, B. Martin, S. Consolo, M. Berthold, U. Langel, G. Fisone and T. Bartfai. 1990. Activity of centrally administered galanin fragments on stimulation of feeding behavior and on galanin receptor binding in the rat hypothalamus. J. Neurosci. 10:3695-3700.

9.
Davis, T., T. Burrin and S. Bloom. 1987. Growth hormone release in response of GH-releasing hormone in man is 3-fold enhanced by galanin. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65:1248-1252. crossref(new window)

10.
de Jesus, L. A., S. D. Carvalho, M. O. Ribeiro, M. Schneider, S. W. Kim, J. W. Harney and P. R. Bianco. 2001. The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase is essential for adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. J. Clin. Invest. 108:1379-1385.

11.
Felig, P. and L. A. Frohman. 2001. The thyroid: physiology, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and painful thyroid. Endocrinol. and metabol. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill: 261-329.

12.
Gao, E., X. Z. Hou, Y. C. Liu, S. Q. Wu and C. J. Ao. 2008. Effect of maternal under-nutrition during late pregnancy on lamb birth weight. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:371-375.

13.
Goldstein, M. and A. Y. Deutch. 1989. The inhibitory actions of NPY and galanin on 3H-norepinephrine release in the central nervous system: Relation to a proposed hierarchy of neuronal coexistence. In: Neuropeptide Y. Karolinska Institute Nobel Conference Series (Ed. V. Mutt, K. Fuxe, T. Hokfelt and J. M. Lundberg). New York: Raven Press, 153-162.

14.
Giustina, A., M. Licini, A. R. Bussi, A. Girelli, G. Pizzocolo, M. Schettino and A. Negro-Vilar. 1993. Effects of sex and age on the growth hormone response to galanin in healthy human subjects. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76:1369-1372. crossref(new window)

15.
Greenberg, J. Radziuk and V. Mutt. 1985 Galanin inhibits insulin secretion and induces hyperglycemia in dogs. Ame. Diabetes Assoc. 34:192-196.

16.
Harrison, F. A. and W. M. Leat. 1975. Digestion and absorption of lipid in non-ruminant and ruminant animals: a comparison. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 34:203-210.

17.
Hermansen, K. 1988. Effects of galanin on the release of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin from the isolated, perfused dog pancreas. Acta. Endocrinol. 119:91-98.

18.
Hokfelt, T., D. Millhorn, K. Seroogy, Y. Tsuruo, S. Ceccatelli, B. Lindh, B. Meister, T. Melander, M. Schalling, T. Bartfai and L Terenius. 1987. Coexistence of peptides with classical neurotransmitters. Experientia 43:768-780. crossref(new window)

19.
Holets, V. R., T. Hökfelt, A. Rökaeus and L. Terenius. 1988. Goldstein M. Locus coeruleus Neurons in the rat containing neuropeptide Y, tyrosine hydroxylase or galanin and their efferent projections to the spinal cord, cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. Neuroscience 24:893-906. crossref(new window)

20.
Holl, R. W., P. Bucher, W. Sorgo, E. Heinze, J. Homoki and K. M. Debatin. 1999. Sppression of growth hormone by oral glucose in the evaluation of tall stature. Hormone Res. 51:20-24.

21.
Kaplan, L., S. Gabriel and S. Koenig. 1988. Galanin is an estrogen-inducible, secretory product of the anterior pituitary. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:7408-7415.

22.
Khazali, H. 1992. Postweaning anestrus in the sows fed different energy content in diet. Ph. D. thesis. University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana

23.
Kyrkouli, S. E., B. G. Stanley and S. F. Leibowitz. 1992. Differential effects of galanin and neuropeptide Y on extracellular norepinephrine levels in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus of the rat: a microdialysis study. Life Sci. 51:203-210. crossref(new window)

24.
Lanni, A., M. Moreno, A. Lombardi, P. de Lange and F. Goglia. 2001. Control of energy metabolism by iodothyronines. J. Endocrinol. Invest. 24:897-913.

25.
Legakis, I. N. 2005. The role of galanin in metabolic disorders leading to type 2 diabetes mellitus drug news perspect. 18:173-178. crossref(new window)

26.
Legradi, G., G. H. Emerson, R. S. Ahima, J. S. Flier and R. M. Lechan. 1997. Leptin prevents fasting-induced suppression of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone messenger ribonucleic acid in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Endocrinol. 138:2569-2576. crossref(new window)

27.
Legradi, G., C. H. Emerson, R. S. Ahima, W. M. Rand, J. S. Flier and R. M. Lechan. 1998. Arcuate nucleus ablation prevents fasting-induced suppression of ProTRH mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Neuroendocrinol. 68:89-95. crossref(new window)

28.
Leibowitz, S., A. Akabayashi and J. Wang. 1998. Obesity on a High-fat diet: role of hypothalamic galanin in neurons of the anterior paraventricular nucleus projecting to the median eminence. J. Neurosci. 18:2709-2719.

29.
Lindskog, S. and B. Ahren. 1991. Studies on the mechanism by which galanin inhibits insulin secretion in islets. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 205:21-27. crossref(new window)

30.
Lindstromm, P. and L. Sävendhal. 1993. Effects of galanin on growth hormone release in isolated cultured rat somatotrophs. Acta. Endocrinol 129:268-272.

31.
Manabe, T., Y. Okada, H. Sawai, H. Funahashi, M. Yamamoto, T. Hayakawa and T. Yoshimura. 2003. Effect of galanin on plasma glucose, insulin and pancreatic glucagon in dogs. J. Int. Med. Res. 31:126-132.

32.
Marsoobian, V., M. Grosvenor, M. Jacob and E. Ipp. 1995. Very-low-energy diets alter the counterregulatory response to falling plasma glucose concentrations. Am. J. Clin. Nut. 61:373-378.

33.
McDonald, T. J., J. Dupre, K. Tatemoto, G. R. Greenberg, J. Radziuk and V. Mutt. 1985. Galanin inhibits insulin secretion and induces hyperglycemia in dogs. Diabet. 34:192-196. crossref(new window)

34.
Melander, T., T. Hokfelt and A. Rokaeus. 1986. Distribution of galanin like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. J. Comp Neurol. 248:475-517. crossref(new window)

35.
Merchentaler, I., F. J. Lopez and A. Negro-Vilar. 1990. Colocalization of galanin and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in a subset of ireoptic hypothalamir neurons anatomical and functional correlates. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:6326-6330.

36.
Meister, B. and A. L. Hulting. 1987. Influence of coexisting hypothalamic messengers on growth hormone secretion from rat anterior pituitary cells in vitro. Neuroendocrinol. 46:387-394. crossref(new window)

37.
Reasner, C. A. and R. L. Ralbert. 2002. Thyroid disorders. Pharmacotherapy and pathophysiologic approach. 5th ed. New York: McGraw-ill. 1359-1378.

38.
Reese, D. E., B. D. Moser, E. R. Peo, Jr., A. J. Lewis, D. R. Zimmerman, J. E. Kinder and W. W. Stroup. 1982. Influence of energy intake during lactation on the interval from weaning to first estrus in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 55:592-598.

39.
Rondeel, J. M., R. Heide, W. J. de Greef, H. van Toor, G. A. van Haasteren, W. Klootwijk and T. J. Visser. 1992. Effect of starvation and subsequent refeeding on thyroid function and release of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Neuroendocrinol. 56:348-353. crossref(new window)

40.
Ruiz, M. E., R. C. Ewan and V. C. Speer. 1971. Serum metabolities of pregnant and hysterectomized gilts fed two levels of energy. J. Anim. Sci. 32:1153-1159.

41.
SAS Institute Inc. 1996. SAS/STAT software: Changes and enhancements through release 6.11. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.

42.
Seth, A., S. Stanley, W. Dhillo, K. Murphy, M. Ghatei and S. Bloom. 2003. Effects of galanin-like peptide on food intake and the Hypothalamo-pituitary-hyroid Axis. Neuroendocrinol. 77:125-131. crossref(new window)

43.
Skofitsch, G. and D. M. Jacobowitz. 1985. Quantitative distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the rat central nervous system. Peptid. 7:609-613.

44.
Stavroula, E., H. Kyrkouli, H. Strubbe and A. Scheurink. 2006. Galanin in the PVN increases nutrient intake and changes peripheral hormone levels in the rat. Physiol. Behav. 89:103-109. crossref(new window)

45.
Towhidi, A., H. Khazali and M. Zhandi. 2007 Leptin is a metabolic signal for GnRH-LH/FSH axis in feed-restricted ewes. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1039-1048.

46.
Tsuda, K., S. Tsuda, M. Goldstein and Y. Masuyama. 1990. Effects of neuropeptide Y on norepinephrine release in hypothalamic slices of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 182:175-179. crossref(new window)

47.
van Haasteren, G. A., E. Linkels, W. Klootwijk, H. van Toor, J. M. Rondeel, A. P. Themmen, F. H. de Jong, K. Valentijn, H. Vaudry, K. Bauer, T. J. Visser and W. J. de Greef. 1995. Starvation-induced changes in the hypothalamic content of prothyrotrophin-releasing hormone (proTRH) mRNA and the hypothalamic release of proTRH-derived peptides: role of the adrenal gland. J. Endocrinol. 145:143-153. crossref(new window)