Anderson, R. A. 1987. Chromium. In: Trace elements in human and animal nutrition (5th Ed.) (Ed. W. Mertz). p. 225. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. Arlington, VA.
Barb, C. R., R. R. Kraeling and G. B. Rampacek. 2002. Metabolic regulation of the neuroendocrine axis in pigs. Reprod. Suppl. 59:203-217.
Boleman, S. L., S. J. Boleman, T. D. Bidner, L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward, J. E. Pontif and M. M. Pike. 1995. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth, body composition, and tissue accretion in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2033-2042.
Bunting, L. D., J. M. Fernandez, D. L. Jr. Thompson and L. L. Southern. 1994. Influence of chromium picolinate on glucose usage and metabolic criteria in growing Holstein calves. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1591-1599.
Evock-Clover, C. M., M. M. Polansky, R. A. Anderson and N. C. Steele. 1993. Dietary chromium supplementation with or without somatotropin treatment alters serum hormones and metabolites in growing pigs without affecting growth performance. J. Nutr. 123:1504-1512.
Guan, X., J. J. Matte, P. R. Ku, J. L. Snow, J. L. Burton and N. L. Trottier. 2000. High chromium yeast supplementation improves glucose tolerance in pigs by decreasing hepatic extraction of insulin. J. Nutr. 130:1274-1279.
Lien, T. F., K. H. Yang and K. J. Lin. 2005. Effects of chromium propionate supplementation on growth performance, serum traits and immune in weaned pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:403-409.
Lindemann, M. D., C. M. Wood, A. F. Harper, E. T. Kornegay and R. A. Anderson. 1995. Dietary chromium picolinate additions improve gain:feed and carcass characteristics in growingfinishing pigs and increase litter size in reproducing sows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:457-465.
Matthews, J. O., A. D. Higbie, L. L. Southern, D. F. Coombs, T. D. Bidner and R. L. Odgaard. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate and metabolizable energy on growth, carcass traits, andpork quality of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:191-196.
Merriam, G. R. and K. W. Wachter. 1982. Algorithms for the study of episodic hormone secretion. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 243:E310-E318.
Mooney, K. W. and G. L. Cromwell. 1995. Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on growth, carcass characteristics, and accretion rates of carcass tissues in growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3351-3357.
Mooney, K. W. and G. L. Cromwell. 1996. Effects of chromium picolinate on growth performance and tissue accretion in pigs with different lean gain potential. J. Anim. Sci. 74 (Suppl.): 65 (Abstr.).
Mooney, K. W. and G. L. Cromwell. 1997. Efficacy of chromium picolinate and chromium chloride as potential modifiers in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2661-2671.
National Research Council (NRC). 1997. The role of chromium in animal nutrition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. p. 80.
National Research Council (NRC). 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th edn. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Okada, S., M. Susuki and H. Ohba. 1983. Enhancement of ribonucleic acid synthesis by chromium (III) in mouse liver. J. Inorg. Biochem. 19:95-103.
Okada, S., M. Taniyama and H. Ohba. 1982. Mode of enhancement in ribonucleic acid synthesis directed by chromium (III)-bound deoxyribonucleic acid. J. Inorg. Biochem. 17:41-49.
Okada, S., H. Tsukada and H. Ohba. 1984. Enhancement of nuclear RNA synthesis by chromium (III) in regenerating rat liver. J. Inorg. Biochem. 21:113-124.
Okada, S., H. Tsukada and M. Tezuka. 1989. Effect of chromium (III) on nucleolar RNA synthesis. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 21:35-39.
Page, T. G., L. L. Southern, T. L. Ward and D. L. Jr. Thompson. 1993. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and serum and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:656-662.
Roginski, E. E. and W. Mertz. 1969. Effects of chromium (III) supplementation on glucose and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a low protein diet. J. Nutr. 97:525-530.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System Inc.). 1989. SAS/STAT User's Guide. Version 6. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Schram, E., S. Moore and E. W. Bigwood. 1954. Chromatographic determination of cystine as cystic acid. Biochem. J. 57:33-37.
Shelton, J. L., R. L. Payne, S. L. Johnston, T. D. Bidner, L. L. Southern, R. L. Odgaard and T. G. Page. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate on growth, carcass traits, pork quality, and plasma metabolites in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2515-2524.
Steele, N. C., T. G. Althen and L. T. Frobish. 1977. Biological activity of glucose tolerance factoring swine. J. Anim. Sci. 45:1341-1345.
Wang, M. Q. and Z. R. Xu. 2004. Effect of chromium nanoparticle on growth performance, carcass characteristics, pork quality and tissue chromium in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1118-1122.
Wang, M. Q., Z. R. Xu, L.Y. Zha and M. D. Lindemann. 2007. Effects of chromium nanocomposite supplementation on blood metabolites, endocrine parameters and immune traits in finishing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 139:69-80.
Ward, T. L., L. L. Southern and R. A. Anderson. 1995. Effect of dietary chromium source on growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations in growing-finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 73(Suppl.):189(Abstr.).
Xi, G., Z. R. Xu, S. H. Wu and S. J. Chen. 2001. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth performance, carcass characteristics, serum metabolites and metabolism of lipid in pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:258-264.