Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Pineal-adrenal Relationship: Modulating Effects of Glucocorticoids on Pineal Function to Ameliorate Thermal-stress in Goats
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Pineal-adrenal Relationship: Modulating Effects of Glucocorticoids on Pineal Function to Ameliorate Thermal-stress in Goats
Sejian, V.; Srivastava, R.S.; Varshney, V.P.;
  PDF(new window)
The purpose of the investigation was to establish how the pineal-adrenal axis plays an important role in thermoregulation in female goats under short-term heat stress. The study was conducted to observe the influence of glucocorticoids on pineal function in goats and its influence on stress alleviation capability. Melatonin and glucocorticoid secretions and several other endocrine and biochemical blood parameters reflecting the animals well being were determined over a one week period after goats had been exposed to and 60% relative humidity for 10 days. Six female goats were used in the study. These animals served as self controls prior to the start of the experiment. The study was conducted for a period of seventeen days in a psychrometric chamber at and 60% relative humidity. Chemical pinealectomy was achieved using propranolol followed by exogenous hydrocortisone treatment. Blood samples were drawn twice daily after each treatment to find the effect of hydrocortisone on plasma glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, melatonin and corticosterone. Chemical pinealectomy significantly () affected plasma levels of the parameters studied and these could be significantly () counteracted by administration of hydrocortisone. Chemical pinealectomy aggravated thermal stress, although administration of hydrocortisone could ameliorate the condition. This indicated a role of the pineal in support of thermoregulation. The study establishes the modulating effect of glucocorticoids on pineal activity to relieve thermal stress in goats.
Goats;Thermal-stress;Chemical Pinealectomy;Propranolol;Glucocorticoids;Hormones;Thermoregulation;
 Cited by
Allain, C. C., L. S. Poon, C. S. G. Chan, W. Richmond and P. C. Fu. 1974. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem. 20:470-475.

Barriga, C., M. I. Martin, R. Tabla, E. Ortega and A. B. Rodriguez. 2001. Circadian rhythm of melatonin, corticosterone and phagocytosis: effect of stress. J. Pineal Res. 30:180-187. crossref(new window)

Bauer, M. S., R. E. Poland, P. C. Whybow and A. Frazer. 1989. Pituitary, adrenal and thyroid effects on melatonin content of the rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology 14:165-175. crossref(new window)

Cunnane, S. C., D. F. Horribin, M. S. Manku and M. Oka. 1979. Alteration of tissue zinc distribution and biochemical analysis of serum following pinealectomy in the rat. Endocrin. Res. Commun. 6(4):311-319. crossref(new window)

Demisch, L., K. Demisch and T. Nickelsen. 1988. Influence of dexamethasone on nocturnal melatonin production in healthy adult subjects. J. Pineal Res. 5:317-321. crossref(new window)

Demitrack, M. A., A. J. Lewy and V. I. Reus. 1990. Pineal-adrenal interactions: the effect of acute pharmacological blockade of nocturnal melatonin secretion. Psychiatry Res. 32(2):183-189. crossref(new window)

Deuben-Schmitter, M., G. Garwey, P. E. Schwabedal and H. Wartenberg. 1976. Simultaneous changes of the perivascular contact area and HIOMT activity in the pineal organ after bilateral adrenalectomy in the rat. Anat. Embryol. 149:297-305. crossref(new window)

Diaz, B. and E. Blazquez. 1986. Effect of pinealectomy on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon levels in the rat. Horm. Metab. Res. 18(4):225-229.

Farrell, G. 1960. Adrenoglomerulotropin. Circulation 21:1009-1015.

Gorray, K. C., W. B. Quay and R. B. L. Ewart. 1979. Effect of pinealectomy and pineal incubation medium and sonicates on insulin release by isolated pancreatic islets in vitro. Horm. Metab. Res. (11):432-436.

Gould, N. R. and H. S. Siegel. 1985. Effects of corticotropin and heat on corticosteroid -binding capacity and serum corticosteroid in white rock chickens. Poult. Sci. 64:144-148.

Hajak, G., A. Rodenbeck, H. D. Ehrenthal, S. Leonard, D. Wedekind, G. Sengos, D. Zhou and G. Huether. 1997. No evidence for a physiological coupling between melatonin and glucocorticoids. Psychopharmacology 133:313-322. crossref(new window)

Hasegawa, A. and W. Mori. 1980. Morphometry of the human pineal gland: relationship to the adrenal cortex. Acta Pathol. Jpn. 30(3):407-410.

Heiman, M. L. and J. R. Porter. 1980. Inhibitory effects of a pineal extract on adrenal cortex. Lack of competition with ACTH. Horm. Res. 12(2):104-112. crossref(new window)

Hicks, T. A., J. J. McGlone, C. S. Whisnant, H. G. Kattesh and R. L. Norman. 1998. Behavioral, endocrine, immune and performance measures for pigs exposed to acute stress. J. Anim. Sci. 76:474-483.

Hirayama, T. and K. Katoh. 2004. Effects of heat exposure and restricted feeding on behavior, digestibility and growth hormone secretion in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(5):655-658.

John, T. M., S. Itoh and J. C. George. 1978. On the role of pineal in thermoregulation in the pigeon. Horm. Res. 9(1):41-56. crossref(new window)

Kamiya, M., Y. Kamiya, M. Tanaka and S. Shioya. 2006. Milk protein production and plasma 3-methylhistidine concentration in lactating Holstein cows exposed to high ambient temperatures. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19(8):1159-1163.

Konakchieva, R., Y. Mitev, O. F. X. Almeida and V. K. Patchev. 1998. Chronic melatonin treatment counteracts glucocorticoidinduced dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in the rat. Neuroendocrinol. 67(2):171-180.

Korde, J. P., G. Singh, V. P. Varshney and D. C. Shukla. 2007. Effects of long-term heat exposure on adaptive mechanism of blood acid-base in buffalo calves. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(5):742-747.

Llma, L. M. B. de., L. C. dos. Reis and M. A. de. Llma. 2001. Influence of the pineal gland on the physiology, morphometry and morphology of pancreatic islets in rats. Rev. Bras. Biol. 2:333-340.

Mahata, S. K., A. Mandal and A. Ghosh. 1988. Influence of age and splanchnic nerve on the action of melatonin in the andromedullary catecholamine content and blood glucose level in the avian group. J. Comp. Physiol. 158:601-607.

Milcu, S. M., I. Nanu-Ionescu and I. Milku. 1971. The effect of pinealectomy on the plasma insulin in rats. In: (Ed. G. E. W. Woltensholme and J. Knight): the pineal gland. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 345-377.

Nardone, A., B. Ronchi, N. Lacetera and U. Bernabucci. 2006. Climatic effects on productive traits in livestock. Vet. Res. Communications. 30(10):75-81. crossref(new window)

Nazifi, S., M. Saeb, E. Rowghani and K. Kaveh. 2003. The influences of thermal stress on serum biochemical parameters of Iranian fat-tailed sheep and their correlation with triiodothyronine ($T_3$), thyroxine ($T_4$) and cortisol concentrations. Comparative Clinical Pathology 12(3):135-139. crossref(new window)

Ogle, T. F. and J. I. Kitay. 1978. In vitro effects of melatonin and serotonin on adrenal steroidogenesis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 157:103-109.

Rodriguez, V., C. Mellado, E. Alvarez, J. G. De Diego and E. Blazquez. 1989. Effect of pinealectomy on liver insulin and glucagon receptor concentrations in the rat. J. Pineal Res. 6:77-88. crossref(new window)

Sheikheldin, M. A., B. E. Howland and W. M. Palmer. 1988. Effects of heat stress on serum progesterone in cyclic ewes and on progesterone and cortisol response to ACTH in ovariectomized ewes. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 84:521-529. crossref(new window)

Snedecor, G. W. and W. C. Cochran. 1989. Statistical Methods. 8th Ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa.

Tietz, N. W. 1976. In clinical guide to laboratory tests, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 238-239.

Tietz, N. W. 1995. Clinical guide to laboratory tests. 3rd ed., W.B.Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 518-519.

Touitou, Y., A. Bogdan, A. Auzeby and C. Touitou. 1989. Activity of melatonin and other pineal indoles on the in vitro synthesis of cortisol, cortisone, and adrenal androgens. J. Pineal. Res. 6(4):341-350. crossref(new window)

Vaughan, M. K., G. M. Vaughan, R. J. Reiter and B. Benson. 1972. Effect of melatonin and other pineal indoles on adrenal enlargement produced in female mice by pinealectomy, unilateral adrenalectomy, castration and stress. Neuroendocrinology 10:139-154. crossref(new window)

Wolfenson, D., Z. Roth and R. Meidan. 2000. Impaired reproduction in heat stressed cattle: basic and applied aspects. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61:535-547. crossref(new window)

Zawilska, J. B. and M. Sadowska. 2002. Prolonged treatment with glucocorticoid dexamethasone suppresses melatonin production by the chick pineal gland and retina. Pol. J. Pharmacol. 54:61-66.

Zeman, M., P. Vyboh, M. Jurani, D. Lamosova, L. Costa, B. Bilcik, P. Blazicek and E. Juraniova. 1993. Effects of exogenous melatonin on some endocrine, behavioral and metabolic parameters in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Comp. Biochem. Comp. Physiol. 105:323-328.