Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Garlic Oil on Fatty Acid Accumulation and Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Differentiating Adipocytes
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Garlic Oil on Fatty Acid Accumulation and Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity in Differentiating Adipocytes
He, M.L.; Yang, W.Z.; You, J.S.; Chaves, A.V.; Mir, P.S.; Benchaar, C.; McAllister, T.A.;
  PDF(new window)
Garlic oil (GAR, Allium sativum L.) has been studied as a feed additive to improve animal production performance and decrease methane emission in ruminants. The present study was designed to determine the possible effect of GAR on fatty acid composition and accumulation in animal fat tissue using a cell model. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at were seeded to 24-well plates and allowed to proliferate to reach confluence. The cells were then treated with media containing 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 of GAR during the differentiation period for 8 days. Media containing dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin was applied during the first 2 days of the early differentiation period. On day 8 sub-sets of the wells were stained with oil red-O and the remaining cells were harvested for determination of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC] (GPDH) activity (n = 6) and cellular fatty acid concentration (n = 6). It was found that supplementation of GAR increased (p<0.05) the ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids in the adipocytes and showed inhibitory effect (p<0.05) on the post-confluent proliferation. With relative low dosage, GAR (5-20 ) increased (p<0.05) the GPDH activity without affecting the cellular fatty acid concentration, while a high dosage (40 ) inhibited (p<0.05) fatty acid accumulation and decreased GPDH activity. Supplementation of GAR had an effect on cell post-confluent proliferation, differentiation and fatty acid accumulation. However, the effect may be diverse and depends on the dose applied.
3T3-L1 Adipocytes;Fatty Acids;Garlic Oil;Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase;
 Cited by
Ackermann, R. T., C. D. Mulrow, G. Ramirez, C. D. Gardner, L. Morbidoni and V. A. Lawrence. 2001. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch. Intern. Med. 5:813-824

Amagase, H., B. L. Petesch, H. Matsuura, S. Kasuga and Y. Itakura. 2001. Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J. Nutr. 131:955S-962S

Brace, L. D. 2002. Cardiovascular benefits of garlic (Allium sativum L). J. Cardiovasc. Nutr. 16:33-49

Busquet, M., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret, M. D. Carro and C. Kamel. 2005. Effect of garlic oil and four of its compounds on rumen microbial fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 88:4393-4404 crossref(new window)

Chaves, A. V., M. L. He, W. Z. Yang, H. Alexander, T. A. McAllister and C. Benchaar. 2008. Effects of essential oils on proteolytic, deaminative and methanogenic activities of mixed ruminal bacteria. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 88:117-122

Egen-Schwind, C., R. Eckard and F. H. Kemper. 1992. Metabolism of garlic constituents in the isolated perfused rat liver. Planta. Med. 58:301-305 crossref(new window)

Field, C., E. Ryan, A. Thomson and M. Clandinin. 1997. Diet fat composition alters membrane phospholipid composition, insulin binding and glucose metabolism in adipocytes from control and diabetic animals. J. Biol. Chem. 265:11143-11150

Green, H. and O. Kehinde. 1974. An established pre-adipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. Cell 3:127-133 crossref(new window)

He, M. L., W. Z. Yang, H. Hidari and W. A. Rambeck. 2006a. Effect of different rare earth elements on proliferation and lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:119-125

He, M. L., T. M. Hnin, H. Kuwayama, P. S. Mir, E. K. Okine and H. Hidari. 2006b. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid type, treatment period and dosage on differentiation of 3T3 cells. Lipids 41:937-949 crossref(new window)

He, M. L., J. S. You, P. S. Mir, W. Z. Yang, C. Benchaar, A. V. Chaves and T. A. McAllister. 2007. Garlic and juniper berry oils improve fatty acids accumulation in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes while trans 10, cis 12 conjugated linoleic acid depresses it. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 88:154-155

He, M. L., Y. Wang, J. S. You, P. S. Mir and T. A. McAllister. 2009. Effect of a seaweed extract on fatty acid accumulation and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Lipids 44:125-132 crossref(new window)

Hsu, C.-L. and G-C. Yen. 2007. Effect of flavonoids and phenolic acids on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:8404-8410 crossref(new window)

Kramer, J. K. G., V. Fellner, M. E. R. Dugan, F. D. Sauer, M. M. Mossob and M. P. Yurawecz. 1997. Evaluating acid and base catalysts in the methylation of milk and rumen fatty acids with special emphasis on conjugated dienes and total trans fatty acids. Lipids 32:1219-1228 crossref(new window)

Lawson, L. D. and Z. J. Wang. 1993. Pre-hepatic fate of the organosulfur compounds derived from garlic (Allium sativum). Planta. Med. 59:A688

Lim, K. S., S. J. You, B. K. An and C. W. Kang. 2006. Effects of dietary garlic powder and copper on cholesterol content and quality characteristics of chicken eggs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:582-586

Liu, C.-T., H. Hse, P. S. Chen and L.-Y. Sheen. 2005. Effects of garlic oil and dially trisulfide on glycemic control in diabetic rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 516:165-173 crossref(new window)

Liu, C.-T., P.-L. Wong, C.-K. Lii, H. Hse and L.-Y. Sheen. 2006. Antidiabetic effect of garlic oil but not diallyl disulfide in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Food Chem. Toxicol. 44: 1377-1384 crossref(new window)

Lowry, O. H., N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Bio. Chem. 193:265-275

Ntambi, J. M. and Y.-C. Kim. 2000. Adipocyte differentiation and gene expression. J. Nutr. 130:3122S-3126S

Sarkar, P., H. Kumar, M. Rawart, V. P. Varshney, T. K. Goswami, M. C. Yadav and S. K. Srivastava. 2006. Effect of administration of garlic extract and $PGF_{2\alpha}$ on hormonal changes and recovery in endometritis cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:964-969

SAS. 1997. The SAS${\circledR}$ system for $Windows^{TM}$ 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

Thomson, M. and M. Ali. 2003. Garlic (Alliium satvum): A review of its potential use as an anti-cancer agent. Cur. Cancer Drug Targets 3:67-81 crossref(new window)

Wise, L. S. and H. Green. 1979. Participation of one isozyme of cytosolic glycerophosphate in adipose conversion of 3T3 cells. J. Biol. Chem. 254:273-275

Wu, C.-C., L.-Y. Sheen, H.-W. Chen, W.-W. Kuo, S.-J. Tsai and C.-K. Lii. 2002: Differential effects of garlic oil and its three major organosulfur components on the hepatic detoxification system in rats. J. Nutr. 131:989S-993S

Xu, S., and B. H. Simon Cho. 1999. Allyl mercaptan, a major metabolite of garlic compounds, reduces cellular cholesterol synthesis and its secretion in Hep-G2 cells. J. Nutr. Biochem. 10:654-659 crossref(new window)

Yalcın, S., İ. Onbasilar, A. Seha and S. Yalcin. 2007. The effects of dietary garlic powder on the performance, egg traits and blood serum cholesterol of laying quails. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:944-947

Yamasaki, T., L. Li and B. Lau. 1994. Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidant injury. Phytother. Res. 8:408-412 crossref(new window)

Yang, W. Z., C. Benchaar, B. N. Ametaj, A. V. Chaves, M. L. He and T. A. McAllister. 2008. Effects of garlic and juniper berry essential oils on ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5671-5681 crossref(new window)

Zelikoff, J. T., N. M. Atkins, Jr. and S. Belman. 1986. Effects of garlic oil and diallyl trisulfide on glycemic. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 2:369-378 crossref(new window)

Zhang, X.-H., D. Lowe, P. Giles, S. Fell, M. J. Connock and D. J. Maslin. 2001. Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects. J. Nutr. 131:1471-1478