Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Intake, Digestibility In vivo, N Utilization and In sacco Dry Matter Degradability of Grass Silage Harvested at Three Stages of Maturity
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Intake, Digestibility In vivo, N Utilization and In sacco Dry Matter Degradability of Grass Silage Harvested at Three Stages of Maturity
Vranic, Marina; Knezevic, Mladen; Perculija, Goran; Bosnjak, Kresimir; Leto, Josip;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on the nutritive value of grass silage (GS) in relation to voluntary intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) utilization and in sacco dry matter (DM) degradability. Silage was cut from a sward dominated by orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at the late-vegetative (early-cut), internode elongation (mediumcut) and flowering (late-cut) stages of growth. The DM yield at harvest was the lowest for early-cut silage (5.4 t/ha) and increased to 6.5 and 7.0 t/ha for the medium and late-cut silage respectively. As the crop matured, the crude protein (CP) concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) and there was a marked increase in acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration (p<0.001). The three different silages were offered to four 18-month old Charolais wether sheep to measure the voluntary intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention over four 21-day periods in an incomplete changeover design. Silage degradability characteristics were determined using four fistulated sheep to measure DM degradability over 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. There was a linear decrease in the voluntary intake of silage fresh matter, DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, ADF and CP, and digestibility of OM in DM (Dvalue) ($P_L<0.01$) as harvesting of grass was delayed. Nitrogen intake, N output in urine, N output in faeces and N balance also linearly decreased ($P_L<0.01$) with postponed harvesting of grass for silage. DM degradability and effective degradability (ED) significantly decreased with increasing maturity of grass at harvest. The results suggest that harvesting date has a significant influence on the nutritive value of GS in terms of intake, digestibility, N balance and in sacco degradability in the rumen. It was concluded that early harvest GS ensured higher intake, digestibility, N intake and DM degradability in comparison with the medium and the late cut GS as a result of improved rumen N efficiency and utilization probably due to a better balance of available energy and protein.
Grass Silage;Intake;N Retention;In vivo Digestibility;In sacco Degradability;
 Cited by
CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE DO FENO DE Andropogon gayanus COLHIDO EM TRÊS IDADES DIFERENTES, Ciência Animal Brasileira, 2016, 17, 4, 482  crossref(new windwow)
Adams, N. R., D. Blache and R. Briegel. 2002, Feed intake, liveweight and wool growth rate in Merino sheep with different responsiveness to low- or high-quality feed, Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 42:399-405 crossref(new window)

Agricultural and Food Research Council 1992, Nutrient requirements of ruminant animals: Protein. technical committee on response to nutrients, report No. 10, Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, series B, 62:787-835

Aibibula, Y., A. Okine, M. Hanada, S. Murata, M. Okamoto and M. Goto. 2007, Effect of replacing rolled corn with potato pulp silage in grass silage-based diets on nitrogen utilization by steers, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1215-1221

Alvir, M. R., E. Paniagua and J. Gonz$\acute{a}$lez. 1998, Efecto del n$\acute{u}$mero de corte sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca del heno de alfalfa. In: Actas de la XXXVIII Reuni$\acute{o}$n Ci$\acute{e}$ntifica de la SEEP, 257-260

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis, 15th ed. Association of Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA

Broderick, G. A. 2003, Effects of varying dietary protein and energy levels on the production of lactating dairy cows, J. Dairy Sci. 86:1370-1381 crossref(new window)

Bunting, L. D., J. A. Boling, C. T. Mackown and R. B. Muntifering. 1987, Effect of dietary protein level on nitrogen metabolism in lambs: Studies using 15N-Nitrogen. J. Anim. Sci. 64:855-867 crossref(new window)

Davidson, S., B. A. Hopkins, D. E. Diaz, S. M. Bolt, C. Brownie, V. Fellner and L. W. Whitlow. 2003, Effects of amounts and degradability of dietary protein on lactation, nitrogen utilization, and excretion in early lactation Holstein cows, J. Dairy Sci. 86:1681-1689 crossref(new window)

Dove, H. and J. A. Milne. 2006, Intake and productivity of lambs grazing leafy or stemmy forage rape and the effect of energy or protein supplements, Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 46:763-769 crossref(new window)

Fowler, P. A., A. R. McLauchlin and L. M. Hall. 2003, The potential industrial uses of forage grasses including Miscanthus, BioComposites Centre, University of Wales, Bangor, Gwynedd, LL57 2UW, UK

Hopkins, A. 2000. Grass, its production and utilisation. Br. Grassland Society

Huhtanen, P., H. Khalili, J. I. Nousiainen, M. Rinne, S. Jaakkola, T. Heikkil$\ddot{a}$ and J. Nousiainen. 2001, Prediction of the relative intake potential of grass silage by dairy cows, Liv. Prod. Sci. 73:111-130

Jung, H. J. 1989, Forage lignins and their effects on fiber digestibility, Agron. J. 81:33-38 crossref(new window)

Kaiser, A. G., B. S. Dear and S. G. Morris. 2007, An evaluation of the yield and quality of oat-legume and ryegrass-legume mixtures and legume monocultures harvested at three stages of growth for silage, Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 47:25-38 crossref(new window)

Kauffman, A. J. and N. R. St-Pierre. 2001, The relationship of milk urea nitrogen to urine nitrogen excretion in Holstein and Jersey cows, J. Dairy Sci. 84:2284-2294 crossref(new window)

Kim, K. H., S. S. Lee, B. T. Jeon and C. W. Kang. 2000, Effect of the pattern of energy supply on the efficiency of nitrogen for microbial protein synthesis in the non-lactating cows consuming silage. Asian-Aust, J. Anim. Sci. 13(7):962-966

Ko, Y. D., J. H. Kim, A. T. Adesogan, H. M. Ha and S. C. Kim. 2006, The effect of replacing rice straw with dry wormwood (Artemisia sp.) on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 125:99-110 crossref(new window)

Iiyama, K. and Thi Bach Tuyet Lam. 2001, Structural characteristics of cell walls of forage grasses-their nutritional evaluation for ruminants, review, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:862-879

Long, R. J., D. G. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Z. Hu and S. K. Dong. 1999, Effect of strategic feed supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in yak cows, Prev. Veter. Med. 38:195-206 crossref(new window)

Masters, D. G., G. Mata, C. K. Revel, R. H. Davidson, H. C. Norman, B. J. Nutt and V. Solah. 2006, Effects of prima gland clover (Triffolium glanduliferum Boiss cv. Prima) consumption on sheep production and meat quality, Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 46:291-297 crossref(new window)

O'Kiely, P. and R. E. Muck. 1998, Grass silage. In: Grass for dairy cattle (Ed. J. H. Cherney and D. J. R. Cherney), CAB International, 223-250

$\phi$rskov, E. R. and I. McDonald. 1979, The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage, J. Agric. Sci. 92:499-503 crossref(new window)

Rahman, M. M., M. Yamamoto, M. Niimi and O. Kawamura. 2008, Effect of nitrogen fertilization on oxalate content in rhodesgrass, guineagrass and sudangrass, Asian-Aust. J. Anim.Sci. 21:214-219

Raza, S. H. and P. Rowlinson. 1995, Partial replacement of grass silage with whole-crop cereal silage for beef cattle, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 8:281-287

SAS. 1999, SAS® Software, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA

Steen, R. W. J., F. J. Gordon, L. E. Dawson, R. S. Park, C. S. Mayne, R. E. Agnew, D. J. Kilpatrick and M. G. Porter. 1998, Factors affecting the intake of grass silage by cattle and prediction of silage intake, Anim. Sci. 66:115-127 crossref(new window)

Shaoa, T., T. Wanga, M. Shimojo and Y. Masuda. 2005, Effect of ensiling density on fermentation quality of guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) silage during the early stage of ensiling, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1273-1278

Sung, K. I. and M. Okubo. 2001, Effect of grass silage supplementation on performance in lactating cows grazing on pasture, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1409-1418

Tamminga, S. 1992, Nutrition management of dairy cows as a contribution to pollution control, J. Dairy Sci. 75:345-357 crossref(new window)

Theander, O. 1991, Chemical analysis of lignocellulosic materials, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 32:35-44 crossref(new window)

Thomas, C., B. G. Gibbs, D. E. Beever and B. R. Thurnham. 1988, The effect of date of cut and barley substitution on gain and on the efficiency of utilisation of grass silage by growing cattle, 1. Gains in live weight and its components, Br. J. Nutr. 60:297-306 crossref(new window)

Touqir, N. A., M. Ajmal Khan, M. Sarwar, M. Nisa, W. S. Lee, H. J. Lee and H. S. Kim. 2007, Influence of varying dry matter and molasses levels on berseem and Lucerne silage characteristics and their in situ digestion kinetics in nili buffalo bulls, Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:887-893

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991, Method for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition, J. Dairy Sci.74:3583-3597

Vanhatalo, A., P. Dakowski and P. Huhtanen. 1996, Effects of stage of growth and duration of rumen incunbation time on intestinal digestibility of rumen-udegradable nitrogen of grass by mobile bag method in cows, Acta Agric. Scand; Anim. Sci.46:1-10

Varel, V. H., J. A. Nienaber and H. C. Freetly. 1999, Conservation of nitrogen in cattle feedlot waste with urease inhibitors, J.Anim. Sci. 77:1162-1168

Vrani$\acute{c}$, M., M. Kne$\check{z}$evi$\acute{c}$, J. Leto, G. Per $\check{c}$ulija, K. Bo $\check{s}$njak, H. Kutnjak and L. Maslov. 2005, Forage quality on family farms in croatia. Monitoring grass silage quality over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows, Mljekarstvo 55:283-296

Wattiaux, M. A. and K. L. Karg. 2004, Protein level for alfalfa and corn silage based diets. I. Lactational response and milk urea nitrogen, J. Dairy Sci. 87:3492-3502 crossref(new window)