Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Degradation Kinetics of Carbohydrate Fractions of Ruminant Feeds Using Automated Gas Production Technique
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Degradation Kinetics of Carbohydrate Fractions of Ruminant Feeds Using Automated Gas Production Technique
Seo, S.; Lee, Sang C.; Lee, S.Y.; Seo, J.G.; Ha, Jong K.;
  PDF(new window)
The current ruminant feeding models require parameterization of the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions in feed ingredients to estimate the supply of nutrients from a ration. Using an automated gas production technique, statistically welldefined digestion rate of carbohydrate, including soluble carbohydrate, can be estimated in a relatively easy way. In this study, the gas production during in vitro fermentation was measured and recorded by an automated gas production system to investigate degradation kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of a wide range of ruminant feeds: corn silage, rice straw, corn, soybean hull, soybean meal, and cell mass from lysine production (CMLP). The gas production from un-fractionated, ethanol insoluble residue and neutral detergent insoluble residue of the feed samples were obtained. The gas profiles of carbohydrate fractions on the basis of the carbohydrate scheme of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (A, B1, B2, B3 and C) were generated using a subtraction approach. After the gas profiles were plotted with time, a curve was fitted with a single-pool exponential equation with a discrete lag to obtain kinetic parameters that can be used as inputs for modern nutritional models. The fractional degradation rate constants (Kd) of corn silage were 11.6, 25.7, 14.8 and 0.8%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2 fractions, respectively. The values were statistically well estimated, assessed by high t-value (>12.9). The Kd of carbohydrate fractions in rice straw were 4.8, 21.1, 5.7 and 0.5%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2 fractions, respectively. Although the Kd of B2 fraction was poorly defined with a t-value of 4.4, the Kd of the other fractions showed tvalues higher than 21.9. The un-fractioned corn showed the highest Kd (18.2%/h) among the feeds tested, and the Kd of A plus B1 fraction was 18.7%/h. Soybean hull had a Kd of 6.0, 29.0, 3.8 and 13.8%/h for un-fractioned, A, B1 and B2, respectively. The large Kd of fraction B2 indicated that NDF in soybean hull was easily degradable. The t-values were higher than 20 except for the B1 fraction (5.7). The estimated Kd of soybean meal was 9.6, 24.3, 5.0%/h for un-fractioned, A and B1 fractions, respectively. A small amount of gas (5.6 ml at 48 ho of incubation) was produced from fermentation of CMLP which contained little carbohydrate. In summary, the automated gas production system was satisfactory for the estimation of well defined (t-value >12) kinetic parameters and Kd of soluble carbohydrate fractions of various feedstuffs that supply mainly carbohydrate. The subtraction approach, however, should be applied with caution for some concentrates, especially those which contain a high level of crude protein since nitrogen-containing compounds can interfere with gas production.
Gas Production Technique;Fractional Rate of Carbohydrate Digestion;Digestion Kinetics of Soluble Carbohydrate;
 Cited by
Relationship between the Methane Production and the CNCPS Carbohydrate Fractions of Rations with Various Concentrate/roughage Ratios Evaluated Using In vitro Incubation Technique,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2013. vol.26. 12, pp.1708-1716 crossref(new window)
Ethanol production potential of sweet sorghum assessed using forage fiber analysis procedures, GCB Bioenergy, 2012, 5, 4, 358  crossref(new windwow)
Evaluation of the nutritional value of locally produced forage in Korea using chemical analysis and in vitro ruminal fermentation, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2016, 30, 3, 355  crossref(new windwow)
Alderman, G. 2001. A critique of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System with emphasis on dairy cattle. 1. The rumen model. J. Anim. Feed Sci. 10:1-24

Baldwin, R. L., L. J. Koong and M. J. Ulyatt. 1977. A dynamic model of ruminant digestion for evaluation of factors affecting nutritive value. Agr. Syst. 2:255-288 crossref(new window)

Callaway, T. R. and S. A. Martin. 1997. Effects of cellobiose and monensin on in vitro fermentation of organic acids by mixed ruminal bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1126-1135 crossref(new window)

Chen, Y. K. 1999. Digestion kinetics of corn grain as affected by processing and associative effects. Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Chen, Y. K., A. N. Pell, L. E. Chase and P. Schofield. 1999. Rate and extent of digestion of the ethanol-soluble and neutral detergent-insoluble fractions of corn grain. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3077-3083

Doane, P. H., A. N. Pell and P. Schofield. 1998. Ensiling effects on the ethanol fractionation of forages using gas production. J. Anim. Sci. 76:888-895

Doane, P. H., P. Schofield and A. N. Pell. 1997. Neutral detergent fiber disappearance and gas and volatile fatty acid production during the in vitro fermentation of six forages. J. Anim. Sci. 75:3342-3352

Fox, D. G., L. O. Tedeschi, T. P. Tylutki, J. B. Russell, M. E. Van Amburgh, L. E. Chase, A. N. Pell and T. R. Overton. 2004. The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System model for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 112:29-78 crossref(new window)

Fox, D. G., T. P. Tylutki, L. O. Tedeschi, M. E. Van Amburgh, L. E. Chase, A. N. Pell, T. R. Overton and J. B. Russell. 2003. The net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating herd nutrition and nutrient excretion: Model documentation. Animal Science department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures, and some applications). Agriculture handbook. No. 379. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC, USA

Hall, M. B., W. H. Hoover, J. P. Jennings and T. K. M. Webster. 1999. A method for partitioning neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79:2079-2086 crossref(new window)

Lanzas, C., C. J. Sniffen, S. Seo, L. O. Tedeschi and D. G. Fox. 2007. A revised CNCPS feed carbohydrate fractionation scheme for formulating rations for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 136:167-190 crossref(new window)

Mahadevan, S., J. D. Erfle and F. D. Sauer. 1980. Degradation of soluble and insoluble proteins by bacteroides amylophilus protease and by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 50:723-728

Menke, K. H. and H. Steingass. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Anim. Res. Dev. 28:7-55

NRC. 2000. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th Revised Edition ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA

NRC. 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th Revised Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA

Pell, A. N. 1997. 'A' fraction carbohydrates in forages and liquid supplements. In: Proceedings of Cornell Nutrition Conference for Feed Manufacturers. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Rochester, NY. pp. 30-35

Pell, A. N., D. O. Molina and P. Schofield. 2000. Measurement of gas production in vitro. In: Gas production: fermentation kinetics for feed evaluation and to assess microbial activity (Ed. E. R. Deaville, B. A. Williams and J. Cone). BSAS, Wageningen Univ., and ID TNO. pp. 1-12

Pell, A. N. and P. Schofield. 1993. Computerized monitoring of gas-production to measure forage digestion in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1063-1073 crossref(new window)

Russell, J. B. 2002. Rumen microbiology and its role in ruminant nutrition. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

Schofield, P. 2000. Gas production methods. In: Farm animal metabolism and nutrition (Ed. J. P. F. D'Mello). CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 209-232

Schofield, P. and A. N. Pell. 1995a. Measurement and kineticanalysis of the neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrate fraction of legumes and grasses. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3455-3463 crossref(new window)

Schofield, P. and A. N. Pell. 1995b. Validity of using accumulated gas pressure readings to measure forage digestion in vitro: a comparison involving three forages. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2230-2238 crossref(new window)

Schofield, P., R. E. Pitt and A. N. Pell. 1994. Kinetics of fiber digestion from in vitro gas production. J. Anim Sci. 72:2980-2991 crossref(new window)

Seo, S. 2005. Forage production and animal husbandry in Korea. Grassland Sci. 51:21-25 crossref(new window)

Seo, S., H. J. Kim, S. Y. Lee and Jong K. Ha. 2008a. Nitrogen utilization of cell mass from lysine production in goats. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:561-566

Seo, S., H. J. Kim, S. Y. Lee and Jong K. Ha. 2008b. Ruminal protein degradation characteristics of cell mass from lysine production. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:364-370

Sniffen, C. J., J. D. Oconnor, P. J. Vansoest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. 2. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577

Tilley, J. M. A. and R. A. Terry. 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J. Br. Grassland Soc. 18:104-111 crossref(new window)

Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2nd Ed. Comstock Pub., Ithaca, NY, USA

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597

Wallace, R. J. and J. Kopecny. 1983. Breakdown of diazotized proteins and synthetic substrates by rumen bacterial proteases. Appl. Environ. Microb. 45:212-217