Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Genetics of Residual Feed Intake in Cattle and Pigs: A Review
Hoque, M.A.; Suzuki, K.;
  PDF(new window)
The feed resource for animals is a major cost determinant for profitability in livestock production enterprises, and thus any effort at improving the efficiency of feed use will help to reduce feed cost. Feed conversion ratio, expressed as feed inputs per unit output, is a traditional measure of efficiency that has significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake and growth traits. The use of ratio traits for genetic selection may cause problems associated with prediction of change in the component traits in future generations. Residual feed intake, a linear index, is a trait derived from the difference between actual feed intake and that predicted on the basis of the requirements for maintenance of body weight and production. Considerable genetic variation exists in residual feed intake for cattle and pigs, which should respond to selection. Phenotypic independence of phenotypic residual feed intake with body weight and weight gain can be obligatory. Genetic residual feed intake is genetically independent of its component traits (body weight and weight gain). Genetic correlations of residual feed intake with daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency have been strong and positive in both cattle and pigs. Residual feed intake is favorably genetically correlated with eye muscle area and carcass weight in cattle and with eye muscle area and backfat in pigs. Selection to reduce residual feed intake (excessive intake of feed) will improve the efficiency of feed and most of the economically important carcass traits in cattle and pigs. Therefore, residual feed intake can be used to replace traditional feed conversion ratio as a selection criterion of feed efficiency in breeding programs. However, further studies are required on the variation of residual feed intake during different developmental stage of production.
Consequences of Selection;Genetic Variation;Residual Feed Intake;
 Cited by
Archer, J. A., P. F. Arthur, R. M. Herd, P. F. Parnell and W. S. Pitchford. 1997. Optimum post-weaning test for measurement of growth rate, feed intake and efficiency in British breed cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2024-2032

Archer, J. A., A. Reverter, R. M. Herd, D. J. Johnston and P. F. Arthur. 2002. Genetic variation in feed intake and efficiency of mature beef cows and relationships with postweaning measurements. Proc. 7th Wld. Congr. Genet. Appl. Livest. Prod. 31:221-224

Arthur, P. F., J. A. Archer, R. M. Herd, E. C. Richardson, S. C. Exton, J. H. Wright, K. C. P. Dibley and D. A. Burton. 1997. Genetic and phenotypic variation in feed intake, feed efficiency and growth in beef cattle. Proc. 12th Conf. Assoc. Advan. Anim. Breed. Genet. 12:234-237

Arthur, P. F., J. A. Archer, D. J. Johnston, R. M. Herd, E. C. Richardson and P. F. Parnell. 2001a. Genetic and phenotypic variance and covariance components for feed intake, feed efficiency and other post weaning traits in Angus cattle. J.Anim. Sci. 79:2805-2811

Arthur, P. F., G. Renand and D. Krauss. 2001b. Genetic and phenotypic relationships among different measures of growth and feed efficiency in young Charolais bulls. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68:131-139 crossref(new window)

Baker, S. D., J. I. Szasz, T. A. Llein, P. S. Kuber, C. W. Hunt, J. B. Glaze, D. Falk, R. Richard, J. C. Millar, R. A. Battaglia and R. A. Hill. 2006. Residual feed intake of purebred Angus steers: effect on meat quality and palatability. J. Anim. Sci. 84:938-945

Brody, S. 1945. Bioenergetics and growth, with special reference to the efficiency complex in domestic animals. Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York

Buttazzoni, L. and I. L. Mao. 1989. Genetic parameters of estimated net energy efficiencies for milk production, maintenance and body weight change in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:671-677 crossref(new window)

Fan, L. Q., D. R. C. Bailey and N. H. Shannon. 1995. Genetic parameter estimation of postweaning gain, feed intake, and efficiency for Hereford and Angus bulls fed two different diets. J. Anim. Sci. 73:365-372

Fitzhugh, H. A. and C. S. Taylor. 1971. Genetic analysis of degree of maturity. J. Anim. Sci. 33:717-725

Gilbert, H., J. P. Bidanel, J. Gruand, J. C. Caritez, Y. Billon, P. Guillouet, H. Lagant, J. Noblet and P. Sellier. 2007. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in growing pigs, with emphasis on genetic relationships with carcass and meat quality traits. J. Anim. Sci. 85:3182-3188 crossref(new window)

Gunsett, F. C. 1986. Problems associated with selection for traits defined as a ratio of two component traits. Proc. 3rd World Cong. Gen. Appl. Livest. Prod. 11:437-442

Gunsett, F. C. 1984. Linear index selection to improve traits defined as ratios. J. Anim. Sci. 59:1185-1193

Haer, L. C. M. 1992. Relevance of eating pattern for selection of growing pigs. Ph.D. thesis. Research Institute for Animal Production (IVO-DLO) Schoonoord, Zeist, The Netherlands

Haer, L. C. M., P. Luiting and H. L. M. Aarts. 1993. Relations among individual (residual) feed intake, growth performance and feed intake pattern of growing pigs in group housing. Livest. Prod. Sci. 36:233-253 crossref(new window)

Herd, R. M., P. F. Arthur, J. A. Archer, E. C. Richardson, J. H. Wright and K. C. P. Dibley. 1997. Performance of progeny of high vs. low net feed conversion efficiency cattle. Proc. 12th Conf. Assoc. Advmt. Anim. Breed. Genet. Dubbo, Australia, pp. 142-745

Herd, R. M. and S. C. Bishop. 2000. Genetic variation in residual feed intake and its association with other production traits in British Hereford cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 63:111-119 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., P. F. Arthur, K. Hiramoto, A. R. Gilmour and T. Oikawa. 2007a. Variance components due to direct genetic, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effect for growth and feed efficiency traits in young male Japanese Black cattle. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 124:102-107 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., P. F. Arthur, K. Hiramoto and T. Oikawa. 2006a. Genetic relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and its component traits in Japanese Black (Wagyu) bulls. Livest. Sci. 99:111-118 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., P. F. Arthur, K. Hiramoto and T. Oikawa. 2006b. Genetic parameters for carcass traits of field progeny and their relationships with feed efficiency traits of their sire population for Japanese Black bulls. Livest. Sci. 100:251-260 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., K. Hiramoto and T. Oikawa. 2005. Genetic relationship of feed efficiency traits of bulls with growth and carcass traits of their progeny for Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle. Anim. Sci. J. 76:107-114 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., M. Hosono and K. Suzuki. 2008a. Genetic parameters for dry matter, energy and protein intake, and their relationships with performance and carcass traits in Japanese Black cattle. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 125:(in press)

Hoque, M. A., H. Kadowaki, T. Shibata, T. Oikawa and K. Suzuki. 2008b. Genetic parameters for measures of residual feed intake and growth traits in seven generations of Duroc pigs. Livest. Sci. (in press)

Hoque, M. A., H. Kadowaki, T. Shibata, T. Oikawa and K. Suzuki. 2007a. Genetic parameters for measures of the efficiency of gain of boars and the genetic relationships with its component traits in Duroc pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1873-1879 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A. and T. Oikawa. 2004. Comparison and relation among different estimates of residual feed intake for Japanese Black (Wagyu) bulls. Anim. Sci. J. 75:201-205 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A. and K. Suzuki. 2008. Genetic parameters for production traits and measures of residual feed intake in Duroc and Landrace pigs. Anim. Sci. J. 79:543-549 crossref(new window)

Hoque, M. A., K. Suzuki, H. Kadowaki, T. Shibata and T. Oikawa. 2007b. Genetic parameters for feed efficiency and their relationships with growth and carcass traits in Duroc pigs. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 124:108-116 crossref(new window)

Jensen, J., I. L. Mao and B. B. Andersen. 1992. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 70:386-395

Johnson, Z. B., J. J. Chewning and R. A. Nugent. 1999. Genetic parameter for production traits and measures of residual feed intake in Large White swine. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1679-1685

Kellner, O. 1909. The scientific feeding of animals. McMillan Co., New York

Kennedy, B. W., J. H. J. Werf and T. H. E. Meuwissen. 1993. Genetic and statistical properties of residual feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3239-3250

Kleiber, M. 1947. Body size and metabolic rate. Physiol. Rev. 27:511-541

Koch, R. M., L. A. Seiger, D. Chambers and K. E. Gregory. 1963. Efficiency of feed use in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 22:486-494

Korver, S., E. A. M. van Eekelen, H. Vos, G. J. Nieuwhof and J. A. M. van Arendonk. 1991. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing heifers. Livst. Prod. Sci. 29:49-59 crossref(new window)

Luiting, P. 1991. The value of feed consumption data for breeding in laying hens. Ph.D. thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands

Mrode, R. A. and B. W. Kennedy. 1993. Genetic variation in measures of food efficiency in pigs and their genetic relationships with growth rate and backfat. Anim. Prod. 56:225-232

Nguyen, N. H., C. P. Mc Phee and C. M. Wade. 2005. Responses in residual feed intake in lines of Large White pigs selected for growth rate on restricted feeding (measured on ad libitum individual feeding). J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 122:264-270 crossref(new window)

Nkrumah, J. D., J. A. Basarab, M. A. Price, E. K. Okine, A. Ammoura, S. Guercio, C. Hansen., C. Li, B. Benkel, B. Murdoch and S. S. Moore. 2004. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake and ultrasound, and carcass merit in Hybrid cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 82:2451-2459

Nkrumah, J. D., J. A. Basarab, Z. Wang, C. Li, M. A. Price, E. K. Okine, D. H. Crews and S. S. Moore. 2007. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85:2711-2720 crossref(new window)

Ollivier, L., R. Gueblez, A. J. Webb, H. A. M. Van der Steen. 1990. Breeding goals for nationally and internationally operating pig breeding organizations. Proc. 4th World Cong. Genet. App. Livest. Prod. 15:383-394

Richardson, E. C., R. M. Herd, J. A. Archer, R. T. Woodgate and P. F. Arthur. 1998. Steers bred for improved net feed efficiency eat less for the same feedlot performance. Anim. Prod. Aust. 22:213-216

Robinson, D. L. and V. H. Oddy. 2004. Genetic parameters for feed efficiency, fatness, muscle area and feeding behavior of feedlot finished beef cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 90:255-270 crossref(new window)

Smith, W. C., M. Ellis, J. P. Chadwick and R. Laird. 1991. The influence of index selection for improved growth and carcass characteristics on appetite in a population of Large White pigs. Anim. Prod. 52:193-199

Veerkamp, R. F. and G. C. Emmans. 1995. Sources of genetic variation in energetic efficiency of dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 44:87-97 crossref(new window)

Von Flede, A., R. Roehe, H. Looft and E. Kalm. 1996. Genetic association between feed intake and feed intake behaviour at different stages of growth of group-housed boars. Livest. Prod. Sci. 47:11-22 crossref(new window)

Webb, A. J. 1989 Genetics of feed intake in the pig. In: The voluntary food intake of pigs, British Soc. Anim. Prod. (occasional publication). 13:41-50

Webb, A. J. and J. W. B. King. 1983. Selection for improved feed conversion ratio on ad libitum group feeding in pigs. Anim. Prod. 37:375-385 crossref(new window)