Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Dietary Synbiotics from Anaerobic Microflora on Growth Performance, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Pathogenic Bacteria Population in Weaning Pigs
Lee, Shin Ja; Shin, Nyeon Hak; Ok, Ji Un; Jung, Ho Sik; Chu, Gyo Moon; Kim, Jong Duk; Kim, In Ho; Lee, Sung Sill;
  PDF(new window)
Synbiotics is the term used for a mixture of probiotics (live microbial feed additives that beneficially affects the host animal) and prebiotics (non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the organism). This study investigated the effect of probiotics from anaerobic microflora with prebiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in weaning pigs. 150 pigs with an initial BW of 6.800.32 kg (20 d of age) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments as follows: i) US, basal diet+0.15% antibiotics (0.05% oxytetracycline 200 and 0.10% tiamulin 38 g), ii) BS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from bacteria), iii) YS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from yeast), iv) MS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (probiotics from mold), v) CS, basal diet+0.2% synbiotics (from compounds of bacteria, yeast and mold). The probiotics were contained in cfu/ml, cfu/ml and tfu/ml of bacteria, yeast and molds, respectively. The same prebiotics (mannan oligosaccharide, lactose, sodium acetate and ammonium citrate) was used for all the synbiotics. Pigs were housed individually for a 16-day experimental period. Growth performance showed no significant difference between antibiotic treatments and synbiotics-added treatments. The BS treatment showed higher (p<0.05) dry matter (DM) and nitrogen digestibility while ether extract and crude fiber digestibility were not affected by the dietary treatment. Also, the BS treatment decreased (p<0.05) fecal ammonia and amine gas emissions. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was also decreased (p<0.05) in BS, YS and MS treatments compared to other treatments. Moreover, all the synbioticsadded treatments increased fecal acetic acid concentration while the CS treatment had lower propionic acid concentration than the US treatment (p<0.05) gas emissions but decreased in fecal propionate gas emissions. Total fecal bacteria and Escherichia coli populations did not differ significantly among the treatments, while the Shigella counts were decreased (p<0.05) in synbiotics-included treatment. Fecal bacteria population was higher in the YS treatment than other treatments (p<0.05). The BS treatment had higher yeast concentration than YS, MS and CS treatments, while US treatment had higher mold concentrations than MS treatment (p<0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that synbiotics are as effective as antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora composition in weaning pigs. Additionally, synbiotics from anaerobic microflora can decrease fecal noxious gas emission and synbiotics can substitute for antibiotics in weaning pigs.
Anaerobic Microflora;Digestibility;Probiotics;Synbiotics;Weaning Pigs;
 Cited by
Effect of probiotic bacteria-fermented medicinal plants (Gynura procumbens, Rehmannia glutinosa, Scutellaria baicalensis) as performance enhancers in growing pigs, Animal Science Journal, 2015, 86, 6, 603  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of L-tryptophan, Fructan, and Casein on Reducing Ammonia, Hydrogen Sulfide, and Skatole in Fermented Swine Manure, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2015, 28, 8, 1202  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of lactulose supplementation on performance, blood profiles, excreta microbial shedding ofLactobacillusandEscherichia coli, relative organ weight and excreta noxious gas contents in broilers, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2014, 98, 3, 424  crossref(new windwow)
Synbiotic as Feed Additives Relating to Animal Health and Performance, Advances in Microbiology, 2016, 06, 04, 288  crossref(new windwow)
Growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, caecal fermentation, ileal morphology and caecal microflora of growing rabbits fed diets containing probiotics and prebiotics, Livestock Science, 2013, 157, 1, 184  crossref(new windwow)
The effect of prebiotics and synbiotics on Clostridium and Escherichia coli counts in human intestinal tract, Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 2013, 60, 3, 77  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of lactulose supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microbial shedding, faecal score and faecal noxious gas emission in weanling pigs, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 2015, 43, 3, 330  crossref(new windwow)
Agriculture, Rural Development Administration. 2007. Standard tables of feed composition in Korea. National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon, Korea

AOAC. 1995. Official method of analysis. 16th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC

Bryant, M. P. and L. A. Burkey. 1953. Cultural methods and some characteristics of some of the more numerous groups of bacteria in the bovine rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 36:205-217 crossref(new window)

Cho, J. H., Y. J. Chen, B. J. Min, J. S. Yoo, Y. Wang and I. H. Kim. 2008. Effects of reducing dietary crude protein on growth performance, odor gas emission from manure and blood urea nitrogen and IGF-1 concentrations of serum in nursery pigs. Anim. Sci. J. 79:453-459 crossref(new window)

Collington, G. K., D. S. Parker, M. Ellis and D. G. Armstrong. 1988. The influence of probiotics or tylosine on growth of pigs and development of the gastro-intestinal tract. Anim. Products. 46:521-522

Dehority, B. A. 1965. Degradation and utilization of isolated hemicellulose by pure cultures of cellulolytic rumen bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 89:1515-1520

Duncan, D. B. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11:1-42 crossref(new window)

Erwin, E. S., G. T. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1771 crossref(new window)

Fuller, R. 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bact. 66:365-378

Gibson, G. R. and B. M. Roberfroid. 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr. 125:1401-1412

Grimes, J. L., D. V. Maurice, S. F. Lightsey and J. G. Lopez. 1997. The effect of dietary fermacto on layer hen performance. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 6:399-403

Haghighi, H. R., J. Gong, C. L. Gyles, M. A. Hayes, B. Sanei, P. Parvizi, H. Gisavi, J. R. Chambers and S. Sharif. 2005. Modulation of antibody-mediate immune response by probiotics in chicken. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 12:1387-1392

Han, I. K., J. D. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. C. Lee, T. H. Kim and J. H. Kwag. 1984. Studies on the growth promoting effects of probiotics: The effects of Clostridium butyricum ID on the performance and the changes in the microbial flora of the feces of growing pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 26:166-171

Hansen, J. A., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband and T. L. Weeden. 1993. Evaluation of animal protein supplements in diets of early-weaned pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71:1853-1862

Hays, V. W. 1977. Effectiveness of feed additive usage of antimicrobial agents in swine and poultry production. In Office of Technology Assessment, Hays VW Ed., Washington, DC

Hill, I. R., R. Kenworthy and P. Porter. 1970. Studies of the effect of dietary lactobacilli on intestinal and urinary amines in pigs in relation to weaning and post-weaning diarrhea. Res. Vet. Sci. 11:320-326

Holdman, L. V., E. P. Coto and W. E. C. Moore. 1977. Anaerobic laboratory manual, 4th ed. Virginia Polytech. Inst. and State Univ. Blackburg, Virginia, USA

Huang, C., S. Qiao, D. Lifa, X. Piao and J. Ren. 2004. Effects of lactobacilli on the performance, diarrhea incidence, VFA concentration and gastrointestinal microbial flora of weaning pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17:401-409

Jurgens, M. H., R. A. Rikabi and D. R. Zimmerman. 1997. The effect of dietary active dry yeast supplement on performance of sows during gestation-lactation and their pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 75:593-597

Kelly, D. 1998. Probiotics in young and newborn animals. J. Anim Feed Sci. 7:15-23

Kim, J. H., C. H. Kim and Y. D. Ko. 2001. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented feed ($Bio-\alpha^{\circledR}$) on performance of finishing pigs and fecal ammonia gas emission. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 43:193-202

Kim, T. W. and K. I. Kim. 1992. Effects of feeding diets containing probiotics, or antimicrobial production in the intestinal contents of rats. Kor. J. Anim Sci. 34:167-173

Ko, S. Y. and C. J. Yang. 2008a. Effect of green tea probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality and immune response in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1339-1347

Ko, S. Y., I. H. Bae, S. T. Yee, S. S. Lee, D. Uuganbayar, J. I. Oh and C. J. Yang. 2008b. Comparison of the effect of green tea by-product and green tea probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality, and immune response of finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1486-1494

Le Dividich, J. and P. Herpin. 1994. Effects of climatic conditions on the performance, metabolism and health status of weaned pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 38:79-90 crossref(new window)

Lowe, S. E., M. K. Theodorou, A. P. J. Trinci and R. B. Hespell. 1985. Growth of anaerobic rumen fungi on defined and semidefined media lacking rumen fluid. J. General Microbiol. 131:2225-2229

Metzler, B., E. Bauer and R. Mosenthin. 2005. Microflora management in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1353-1362

Min, T. S., I. K. Han, I. B. Chung and I. B. Kim. 1992. Effects of dietary supplementation with antibiotics, sulfur compound, copper sulfate, enzyme and probiotics on the growing performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 16:265-274

Mohan, B., R. Kadirvel, A. Natarajan and M. Bhaskaran. 1996. Effect of probiotic supplementation on growth, nitrogen utilization and serum cholesterol in broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 37:395-401 crossref(new window)

Muralidhara, K. S., G. G. Sheggeby, P. R. Eliker, D. C. England and W. E. Sandine. 1977. Effects of feeding lactobacilli on the coli form and lactobacillus flora on intestinal tissue and feces from piglets. J. Food Prod. 40:288-295

NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th Rev. Eds. National Academy Press, Washington DC

Noh, S. H., H. K. Moon, I. K. Han and I. S. Shin. 1995. Effect of dietary growth promoting substances on the growth performance in pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 37:66-72

Pollman, D. S. 1986. Additives, flavors, enzymes and probiotics in animal feeds. Proc. 22nd Annual Nutrition Conference. University of Guelph

Pollman, D. S., D. M. Danielson and E. R. J. Peo. 1980. Effect of microbial feed additives on performance of starter and growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 51:577-581

Ra, J. C., H. J. Han and J. E. Song. 2004. Effect of probiotics on production and improvement of environment in pigs and broilers. Kor. J. Vet. Public Health 28:157-167

Santoso, U., S. Ohtani, K. Tanaka and M. Sakaida. 1999. Dried Bacillus subtilis culture ammonia gas release in poultry houses. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:806-809

SAS. 1996. SAS user's guide. Release 6.12 edition. SAS Institude. Inc Cary NC. USA

Schierack, P., M. Nordhoff, M. Pollmann, P. Schwerk, D. Taras, A. Lubke-Becker, L. H. Wieler and K. Tedin. 2004. Effects of an Enterococcus faecium probiotic in pigs: Influence on enteropathogenic bacteria. Anim. Res. 53:338 (Abstract)

Smith, H. W. and J. E. T. Jones. 1963. Observations on the alimentary tract and its bacterial flora in healthy and diseased pigs. J. Pathogenic Bacteria. 86:387-412 crossref(new window)

Taylor, C. C., N. K. Ranjit, J. A. Mills, J. M. Neylon and L. Kung. 2002. The effect of treating whole-plant barley with Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 on silage fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value for dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:2011-2016 crossref(new window)

Underdahl, N. R., A. Torres-Median and A. R. Doster. 1982. Effect of Streptococcus faecium C-68 in the control of Escherichia coli-induced diarrhea in genotociotic pigs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43:2227-2232

Visek, W. J. 1978. The mode of growth promotion by antibiotics. J. Anim. Sci. 46:1447-1453

Williams, C. H., D. J. David and O. Iismaa. 1962. The determination of chromic oxide in feces samples by automic absorption spectrophotometry. J. Agric. Sci. 59:381-385 crossref(new window)

Williams, P. E. V., C. A. G. Tait, G. M. Innes and C. J. Newbold. 1991. Effects of the inclusion of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus growth medium) in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and forage degradation and fermentation patterns in the rumen of steer. J. Anim. Sci. 69:3016-3026

Witte, W. 2000. Selective pressure by antibiotic use in livestock. Intl. J. Antimicrobial Agents. 16:S19-S24