JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Dietary Zinc Level and an Inflammatory Challenge on Performance and Immune Response of Weanling Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Dietary Zinc Level and an Inflammatory Challenge on Performance and Immune Response of Weanling Pigs
Sun, Guo-jun; Chen, Dai-wen; Zhang, Ke-ying; Yu, Bing;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary zinc level on growth performance and immune function in normal (Experiment 1) and immunologically challenged (Experiment 2) weanling pigs. Treatments consisted of the following: i) a corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 36.75 mg/kg total Zn, ii) basal diet+60 mg/kg added Zn as , iii) basal diet+120 mg/kg added Zn as . Each diet was fed to six pens of four pigs per pen (Exp. 1) or six pens of three pigs per pen (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, the dietary zinc level had no effect on average daily growth (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Concentrations of tissue and serum zinc were not affected. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation (PBLP) was not affected by dietary treatments. Supplementation of 120 mg/kg Zn decreased (p<0.05) the antibody response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) on d 7 compared with pigs fed the basal diet, but not on d 14. In Exp. 2, LPS challenge had no effect on ADG, ADFI and FCR in the entire trial (from d 0 to 21). LPS challenge significantly decreased ADG and ADFI (p<0.01) from d 7 to 14, but FCR was not affected. LPS challenge increased PBLP (p<0.05) and serum concentration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (p<0.01), whereas the antibody response to BSA and serum concentration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) were not affected. Supplementation of Zn did not affect ADFI and FCR from d 7 to 14, but there was a trend for ADG to be enhanced with Zn supplementation (p<0.10). Supplementation of Zn tended to increase PBLP (p<0.10). Dietary treatment had no effect on the antibody response to BSA or concentrations of serum IL-1 and IL-2. Results indicate that the level of Zn recommended by NRC (1998) for weanling pigs was sufficient for optimal growth performance and immune responses. Zn requirements may be higher for pigs experiencing an acute phase response than for healthy pigs.
 Keywords
Performance;Immune Response;Pig;Zinc;Immune Challenge;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Balaji, R., K. J. Wright, C. M. Hill, S. S. Dritz, E. L. Knoppel and J. E. Minton. 2000. Acute phase responses of pigs challenged orally with Salmonella typhimurium. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1885-1891 crossref(new window)

2.
Beisel, W. R. 1977. Metabolic and nutritional consequences of infection. In: Advances in nutritional research (Ed. H. H. Draper). Plenum, New York. p. 125

3.
Cheng, J., E. T. Kornegay and T. C. Schell. 1998. Influence of dietary lysine on the utilization of zinc from zinc sulfate and a zinc lysine complex by young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1064-1074

4.
Case, C. L. and M. S. Carlson. 2002. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1917-1924

5.
Groote, D. De., P. F. Zangerle, Y. Gevaert, M. F. Fassotte, Y. Beguin, F. Noizat-Pirenne, J. Pirenne, R. Gathy, M. Lopez and I. Dehart. 1992. Direct stimulation of cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-2, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF) in whole blood. I. Comparison with isolated PBMC stimulation. Cytokine. 4(3):239-248 crossref(new window)

6.
Guo, G. L., Y. L. Liu, W. Fan, J. Han, Y. Q. Hou, Y. L. Yin, H. L. Zhu, B. Y. Ding, J. X. Shi, J. Lu, H. R. Wang, J. Chao and Y. H. Qiu. 2008. Effect of achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide on growth performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic response of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1189-1195

7.
Hellerstein, M. K., S. N. Meydani, M. Meydani, K. Wu and C. A. Dinarello. 1989. Interleukin-1-induced anorexia in the rat. Influence of prostaglandins. J. Clin. Invest. 84:228-235 crossref(new window)

8.
Hahn, J. D. and D. H. Baker. 1993. Growth and plasma zinc responses of young pigs fed pharmacological levels of zinc. J. Anim. Sci. 71:3020-3024

9.
Hall, V. L., R. C. Ewan and M. J. Wannemuehler. 1993. Effect of zinc deficiency and zinc source on performance and immune response in young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 71(Suppl. 1):173(Abstr.)

10.
Hill, G. M., E. R. Miller, P. A. Whetter and D. E. Ullrey. 1983. Concentration of minerals in tissues of pigs from dams fed different levels of dietary zinc. J. Anim. Sci. 57:130-138

11.
Hill, G. M., G. L. Cromwell, T. D. Crenshaw, C. R. Dove, R. C. Ewan, D. A. Knabe, A. J. Lewis, G. W. Libal, D. C. Mahan, G. C. Shurson, L. L. Southern and T. L. Veum. 2000. Growth promotion effects and plasma changes from feeding high dietary concentrations of zinc and copper to weanling pigs (regional study). J. Anim. Sci. 78:1010-1016

12.
Ibs, K. H. and L. Rink. 2003. Zinc-altered immune function. J. Nutr. 133:1452S-1456S

13.
Jacobi, S. K., N. K. Gabler, K. M. Ajuwon, J. E. Davis and M. E. Spurlock. 2006. Adipocytes, myofibers, and cytokine biology: new horizons in the regulation of growth and body composition. J. Anim. Sci. 84(E. Suppl.): E140-E149

14.
Jiang, Z. Y., Z. Y. Xu, G. C. Huo, A. Wang and W. F. Liu. 1987. Effect of dietry zinc level on the blood biochemical parameters and tissue mineral concentrations in yong swine. J. Northeast Agricultural College 18:353-358 (in Chinese)

15.
Johnson, R. W. and E. von Borell. 1994. Lipopolysaccharideinduced sickness behavior in pigs is inhibited by pretreatment with indomethacin. J. Anim. Sci. 72:309-314

16.
Johnson, R. W. 1997. Inhibition of growth by pro-inflammatory cytokines: An integrated view. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1244-1255

17.
Johnson, R. W., J. Escobar and D. M. Webel. 2001. Nutrition and immunology of swine. In: Swine Nutrition, 2nd Ed. (Ed. J. Lewis, L. Lee Southern). CRC Press, Washington, DC. pp. 545-562

18.
Klasing, K. C., D. E. Laurin, R. K. Peng and D. M. Fry. 1987. Immunologically mediated growth depression in chicks: Influence of feed intake, corticosterone and interleukin-1. J. Nutr. 117:1629-1637

19.
Klasing, K. C. 1988. Nutritional aspects of leukocytic cytokines. J. Nutr. 118:1436-1446 crossref(new window)

20.
Klasing, K. C. 2001. Protecting animal health and well-being: nutrition and immune function. In: Scientific advances in animal nutrition. NRC. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC. pp. 13-20

21.
Kegley, J., W. Spears and S. K. Auman. 2001. Dietary phosphorus and an inflammatory challenge affect performance and immune function of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:413-419

22.
Lalles, J. P., C. Favier and C. Jondreville. 2007. Diet moderately deficient in zinc induces limited intestinal alterations in weaned pigs. Livest. Sci. 108:153-155 crossref(new window)

23.
Linda, S. T., F. N. Cheryl and J. F. Martin. 1988. Effects of Escherichia coli on iron, copper, and zinc metabolism in chicks. Avian Diseases, Vol. 32, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec.), pp. 779-786 crossref(new window)

24.
Liu, Y. L., D. F. Li, L. M. Gong, G. F. Yi, A. M. Gaines and J. A. Carroll. 2003. Effects of fish oil supplementation on the performance and the immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weaned pigs after an Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2758-2765

25.
Liu, Y. L., J. J. Huang, Y. Q. Hou, H. L. Zhu, S. J. Zhao, B. Y. Ding, Y. L. Yin, G. F. Yi, J. X. Shi and W. Fan. 2008. Dietary arginine supplementation alleviates intestinal mucosal disruption induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide in weaned pigs. Br. J. Nutr. 100:552-560

26.
Miller, E. R., R. W. Luecke, D. E. Ullrey, B. V. Baltzer, B. L. Bradley and J. A. Hoefer. 1968. Biochemical, squeletal and allometric changes due to zinc deficiency in the baby pig. J. Nutr. 95:278-286

27.
Mao, X. S., C. Piao, C. H. Lai, D. F. Li, J. J. Xing and B. L. Shi. 2005. Effects of $\beta$-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2775-2782

28.
National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th Ed. National Academic Press, Washington, DC

29.
Rink, L. and H. Kirchner. 2000. Zinc-altered immune function and cytokine production. J. Nutr. 130:1407S-1411S

30.
Smith, M. P. Plumlee and W. M. Beeson. 1961. Zinc requirement of the growing pig fed isolated soybean protein semi-purified rations. J. Anim. Sci. 20:128-132

31.
Swinkels, J. W., E. T. Kornegay, W. Zhou, M. D. Lindemann, K. E. Webb, Jr. and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1996. Effectiveness of a zinc amino acid chelate and zinc sulfate in restoring serum and soft tissue zinc concentrations when fed to zinc-depleted pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2420-2430

32.
Schell, T. C. and E. T. Kornegay. 1996. Zinc concentration in tissues and performance of weanling pigs fed pharmacological levels of zinc from ZnO, Zn-Methionine, Zn-Lysine, or ZnSO4. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1584-1593

33.
Spears, J. W., E. S. Roberts, E. van Heugten, K. Lloyd and G. W. Almond. 2002. Dietary zinc effects on growth performance and immune response of endotoxemic growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:1496-1501

34.
Spurlock, M. E. 1997. Regulation of metabolism and growth during immune challenge: An overview of cytokine function. J. Anim. Sci. 75:1773-1783

35.
Van Heugten, E., J. W. Spears and M. T. Coffey. 1994. The effect of dietary protein on performance and immune response in weanling pigs subjected to an inflammatory challenge. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2661-2669

36.
Van Heugten, E., J. W. Spears, E. B. Kegley, J. D. Ward and M. A. Qureshi. 2003. Effects of organic forms of zinc on growth performance, tissue zinc distribution, and immune response of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2063-2071

37.
Wannemacher, R. W. 1977. Key role of various individual amino acids in host response to infection. J. Clin. Nutr. 30:1269

38.
Whitenack, D. L., C. K. Whitehair and E. R. Miller. 1978. Influence of enteric infection on zinc utilization and clinical signs and lesions of zinc deficiency in young swine. Am. J. Vet. Res. 39:1447-1454

39.
Wedekind, K. J., A. J. Lewis, M. K. Giesemann and P. S. Miller. 1994. Bioavailability of zinc from inorganic and organic sources for pigs fed corn-soybean meal diets. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2681-2689