Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Evaluation of Soybean Oil as a Lipid Source for Pig Diets
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Evaluation of Soybean Oil as a Lipid Source for Pig Diets
Park, S.W.; Seo, S.H.; Chang, M.B.; Shin, I.S.; Paik, InKee;
  PDF(new window)
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soybean oil supplementation replacing tallow in pig diets at different stages of growth. One hundred and twenty crossbred (LandraceYorkshireDuroc) pigs weighing 18 kg on average were selected. Pigs were randomly allotted to 12 pens of 10 pigs (5 pigs of each sex) each. Three pens were assigned to each of the four treatments: TA; tallow diet, TA-SO-80; switched from tallow to soybean oil diet at 80 kg average body weight, TA-SO-45; switched from tallow to soybean oil diet at 45 kg average body weight, and SO; soybean oil diet. Treatment SO was significantly lower in ADG than tallow diets (TA, TA-SO-80 and TA-SO-45) during the grower period (18 to 45 kg). However, treatment SO showed greatest compensation in ADFI and ADG during the finisher-2 period (after 80 kg body weight). ADFI and ADG and Gain/Feed for the total period were not significantly different among treatments. Loin area, back fat thickness, firmness and melting point of back fat were not significantly different. The levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein+very low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum were significantly lower in treatment SO than in treatments TA-SO-45, TA-SO-80 and TA. The level of serum triglyceride linearly increased as the length of the tallow feeding period increased. Serum immunoglobulin-G (IgG) level was significantly higher in the soybean oiltreatment than in other treatments. Major fatty acid composition of short rib muscle and back fat were significantly influenced by treatments. Contents of -linolenic acid (C18:3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) linearly increased as the soybean oil feeding period increased. In conclusion, soybean oil can be supplemented to the diet of pigs without significant effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. The level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially fatty acids in the carcass was increased by soybean oil supplementation.
Cholesterol;Pig;Soybean Oil;Tallow; Fatty Acid;
 Cited by
Meat Quality and Volatile Flavor Traits of Duroc, Berkshire and Yorksire Breeds,Dashmaa, Dashdorj;Cho, Byung-Wook;Odkhuu, Ganbat;Park, Kyoung-Mi;Do, Kyoung-Tag;Lee, Ki-Hwan;Seo, Kang-Seok;Choi, Jae-Gwan;Lee, Moon-Jun;Cho, In-Kyung;Ryu, Kyeong-Seon;Jeong, Da-Woon;Hwang, In-Ho;

한국축산식품학회지, 2011. vol.31. 6, pp.807-816 crossref(new window)
Alessandri, H. M., B. Goustard, P. Guesnet and A. Durand. 1998. Docosahexaenoic acid concentrations in retinal phospholipids of piglets fed an infant formula enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid: effect of egg phospholipids and fish oil with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 67:377-385

AOCS. 1967. Official methods of analysis. American Oil Chemists' Society, Chicago

Azain, M. J. 2004. Role of fatty acids in adipocyte growth and development. J. Anim. Sci. 82:916-924

Bee, G., S. Geber and R. Messikommer. 2002. Effect of dietary energy supply and fat source on the fatty acid pattern of adipose and lean tissue and lipogenesis in the pig. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1564-1574

Cera, K. R., D. C. Mahan and G. A. Reinhart. 1989. Apparent fat digestibilities and performance responses of postweaning swine fed diets supplemented with coconut oil, corn oil or tallow. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2040-2047

Cera, K. R., D. C. Mahan and G. A. Reinhart. 1990. Evaluation of various extracted vegetable oils, roasted soybeans, mediumchain triglyceride and an animal-vegetable fat blend for postweaning swine. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2756-2765

Coffey, M. T., R. W. Funderburke and H. C. McCampbell. 1982. Effect of heat increment and level of dietary energy and environmental temperature on the performance of growingfinishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 54:95-105

Conquer, J. A. and B. J. Houlb. 1998. Effect of supplementation with different doses of DHA on the level of circulating DHA as nonesterified fatty acid in subjects of Asian Indian background. J. Lipid Res. 39:286-292

Enser, M. 1984. The chemistry, biochemistry and nutritional importance of animal fats. In: Fats in animal nutrition (Ed. J. Wise). Butterworths pp. 23-51

Ensminger, M. E., J. E. Oldfield and W. W. Heinemann. 1990. Feeds and Nutrition. $2^{nd}$. The Ensminger Publishing Company, Clovis, CA. USA

Frenadez, M. L. and D. J. McNamara. 1991. Regulation of cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in guinea pigs mediated by dietary fat quality and quantity. J. Nutr. 121:934-943

Gatlin, A. L., M. T. See, J. A. Hansen, D. Sutton and J. Odle. 2002. The effects of dietary fat sources, levels, and feeding intervals on pork fatty acid composition. J. Anim. Sci. 80:1606-1615

Harbige, L. S. 1998. Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 57:555-562

Harris, W. S., W. E. Conner, S. B. Inkeles and D. R. Illingworth. 1984. Dietary $\omega$-3 fatty acids prevent carbohydrate induced hypertriglyceridemia. Metabolism 33:1016-1019 crossref(new window)

Harris, W. S. 1997. n-3 Fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65:1645-1654

Hartman, A. D., W. J. Costello, G. W. Libal and R. C. Wahlstrom. 1985. Effect of sunflower seeds on performance, carcass quality, fatty acids and acceptability of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 60:212-219

Howard, K. A., D. M. Forsyth and T. R. Cline. 1990. The effect of an adaption period to soybean oil additions in the diets of young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:678-683

Irie, M. and M. Sakimoto. 1992. Fat characteristics of pigs fed fish oil containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. J. Anim. Sci. 70:470-477

Kendall, P. T. 1984. The use of fat in dog and cat diets. In: Fats in animal nutrition (Ed. J. Wiseman). Butterworths pp. 397-398

Klingenberg, I. L., D. A. Knabe and S. B. Smith. 1995. Lipid metabolism in pigs fed beef tallow or high-oleic acid sunflower oil. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 110B:183-192 (Abstr.) crossref(new window)

Kouba, M., M. Enser, F. M. Whittington, G. R. Nute and J. D. Wood. 2003. Effect of a high-linolenic acid diet on lipogenic enzyme activities, fatty acid composition, and meat quality in the growing pig. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1967-1979

Lands, W. E. M. 1986. Immune response. In: Fish and human health. New York: Academic Press. pp. 63-82

Lepage, G. and C. C. Roy. 1986. Direct transesterification of all classes of lipid in a one/step reaction. J. Lipid Res. 27:114

Leskanich, C. O., K. R. Matthews, C. C. Warkup, R. C. Noble and M. Hazzledine. 1997. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat. J. Anim. Sci. 75:673-683

Mancini, G., A. O. Carbonara and J. F. Heremans. 1965. Immunochemical quantitation of antigens by single radical immunodiffusion. Immunochemistry 2:235-254 crossref(new window)

Morgan, J. B., G. C. Smith, J. Cannon, F. Mckeith and J. Heavner. 1994. Pork distribution channel audit report. In: Pork chain quality audit-progress report (Ed. D. Meeker and S. Sonka). National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA

NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. $10^{th}$ Rev. Ed., National Research Council, Washington DC, USA

Park, S. W., S. H. Seo, H. Namkung, I. K. Paik and I. S. Shin. 2001. Effect of soybean oil supplementation on the performance of weanling pigs. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 43:485-496

Perez, Rigau, A., M. D. Linderman, E. T. Kornegay, A. F. Harper and B. A. Watkins. 1995. Role of dietary lipids on fetal tissue fatty acid composition and fetal survival in swine at 42 days of gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1372-1380

Renner, R. and F. W. Hill. 1961. Factors affecting the absorbability of saturated fatty acids in the chick. J. Nutr. 74:254-258 crossref(new window)

Romans, J. R., R. C. Johnson, D. M. Wolf, G. W. Libal and W. J. Costello. 1995. Effects of ground flaxseed in swine diets on pig performance and physical and sensory characteristics and omega-3 fatty acid content of pork: I. Dietary level of flaxseed. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1982-1986

Sanderson, P., Y. E. Finnegan, C. M. Willams, P. C. Calder, G. C.Burdge, S. A. Wooton, B. A. Grifin, D. J. Millward, N. C. Pegge and W. J. E. Bemelmans. 2002. UK Food Standards Agency $\alpha$-linolenic acid workshop report. Br. J. Nutr. 88:573-579 crossref(new window)

SAS Institute. 1996. SAS/STAT user's guide release 6.12 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina

Scollan, N. D., N. J. Choi, E. Kurt, A. V. Fisher, M. Enser and J. D. Wood. 2001. Manipulating the fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue in beef cattle. Br. J. Nutr. 85:115-124 crossref(new window)

Skelley, G. C., R. F. Borgman, D. L. Handlin, J. C. Acton, J. C. Mc Connel, F. B. Wardlaw and E. J. Evans. 1975. Influence of diet on quality, fatty acids and acceptability of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1298-1304

Sprecher, H. 1981. Biochemistry of essential fatty acids. Progress in Lipid Research. 20:13-22 crossref(new window)

Stubbs, C. D. and A. D. Smith. 1984. The modification of mammalian membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 779:89-137

Theodore, J. W. 1980. Commercial oil source. In: Food oils and their uses. The AVI Publishing Co. Inc. pp. 26-46

Thiel-Cooper, R. L., F. C. Parrish Jr. J. C. Sparks, B. R. Wiegand and R. C. Ewan. 2001. Conjugated linoleic acid changes swine performance and carcass composition. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1821-1828

Tukey, J. W. 1953. The problem of multiple comparisons. Princeton University , Princeton, NJ

In: 2nd Ed. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie. 1980. McGraw-Hill Book Co. pp. 185-186

Turlington, H. 1988. The effect of protein, carbohydrate and fat source on nutrient digestibility of the early weaned pig. Ph.D. Thesis. Kansas State Univ., Manhattan

Van Oeckel, M. J., M. Casteels, N. Warnants, L. Van Damme and Ch. V. Boucque. 1996. Omega-3 fatty acids in pig nutrition: implications for the intrinsic and sensory quality of the meat. Meat Sci. 44:55-63 crossref(new window)

Wahlstrom, R. C., G. W. Libal and R. J. Berns. 1971. Effect of cooked soybean on performance, fatty acid composition and pork carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 32:891-894