JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of a Stair-step Growth Pattern on Improvements in Meat Quality and Growth in Hanwoo Steers
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of a Stair-step Growth Pattern on Improvements in Meat Quality and Growth in Hanwoo Steers
Li, Z.H.; Lee, H.G.; Xu, C.X.; Hong, Z.S.; Jin, Y.C.; Yin, J.L.; Zhang, Q.K.; Piao, D.C.; Yang, U.M.; Choi, Y.J.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of a stair-stepped feed intake pattern on growth, feed efficiency, and meat quality of Hanwoo steers. Twenty-seven 11-month-old Hanwoo steers were randomly divided into three groups. The control group was fed according to the Korean steer feeding program, and the other two groups were fed according to an alternated feeding schedule of 3-2-4-2 months. During the first three months of the experiment, treatment group 1 (T1) and treatment group 2 (T2) were fed 20% and 30% less than the control group, respectively. For the following two months, the T1 group was fed 20% more than the control group while the T2 group was fed 20% less than the control group. In the third step, T1 and T2 groups were fed 20% and 10% less, respectively, than the control group for four months. In the last two months, T1 and T2 groups were fed 20% more than the control group. After the stair-step feeding trial, steers were fed concentrated feed ad libitum for five months. The altered feed intake pattern did not affect daily body weight gain. However, daily feed intake tended to decrease and growth efficiency tended to increase in the two treatment groups compared to the control group. Altered feed intake also affected blood metabolite levels. The serum glucose and BUN level of the T1 group increased in the first re-fed period compared to the T2 and control groups. The serum cholesterol level of the T2 group decreased in the first restricted-re-fed growth period compared to the T1 and control groups. The serum NEFA levels of the two treatment groups increased from the first restricted period compared to the controls. The serum insulin level of the T2 group increased in the last period compared to the T1 and control groups. Regarding meat yield index, the control group was significantly higher than the T2 group (p<0.05). Regarding meat yield grade, the carcass back fat thickness of the T2 group was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). In marbling score, the T1 group was the highest (4.9), followed by the control group (4.1) and the T2 group (4.0). These results indicate that using a stair-stepped growth pattern (T1) can contribute to improvements in growth efficiency and muscle marbling.
 Keywords
Stair-step Growth Pattern;Growth Efficiency;Blood metabolites;Marbling Score;Hanwoo;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Assessment of caprine corpora lutea growth, progesterone concentration, and eNOS expression: effect of a compensatory gain model, Domestic Animal Endocrinology, 2016, 56, 48  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Responses to administration of growth hormone releasing hormone and glucose in steers receiving stair-step and extended restriction on feeding, Livestock Science, 2012, 150, 1-3, 229  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Metabolic changes, ovarian function and growth related gene expression in goats given stair-step feeding during estrous cycle, Small Ruminant Research, 2016, 137, 109  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Abdalla, H. O., D. G. Fox and M. L. Thonney. 1988. Compensatory gain by Holstein calves after underfeeding protein. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2687-2695.

2.
Ahn, K. H., I. K. Han, K. Kwon, J. H. Woo and Y. J. Choi. 1996. Effects of stair-step feeding pattern by manipulating energy/protein contents on the growth rate, mammary gland development and reproductive performance. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 20:257-268.

3.
AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th Ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC, USA.

4.
Arave, C. W., R. H. Miller and R. C. Lamb. 1975. Genetic and environmental effects on serum cholesterol of dairy cattle of various ages. J. Dairy Sci. 58:(3):423-427. crossref(new window)

5.
Bassett, J. M. 1972. Plasma glucagon concentrations in sheep: their regulation and relation to concentrations of insulin and growth hormone. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 25:1277-1287.

6.
Blum, J. W., W. Schnyder, P. L. Kunz, A. K. Blom, M. Bickel and A. Schürch. 1985. Reduced and compensatory growth: endocrine and metabolic changes during food restriction and refeeding in steers. J. Nutr. 115(4):417-424.

7.
Bohman, V. R. 1955. Compensatory growth of beef cattle. The effect of hay maturity. J. Anim. Sci. 14:249-255.

8.
Choi, Y. J., S. H. Kim, K. K. Cho and I. K. Han. 1992. The regulation of mammary development and milk protein gene expression by stair-step growth pattern in rats. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 16:183-190.

9.
Choi, Y. J., H. J. Lee and Y. G. Ko. 1996. Effects of stair-step growth pattern on growth efficiency and blood metabolites in Korean cattle. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 20:529-535.

10.
Choi, Y. J., I. K. Han, J. H. Woo, H. J. Lee, K. Jang, K. H. Myungand Y. S. Kim. 1997. Compensatory growth in dairy heifers: The effect of a compensatory growth pattern on growth rate and lactation performance. J. Dairy Sci. 80:519-524. crossref(new window)

11.
Clarke, S. D., M. K. Armstrong and D. B. Jump. 1990. Nutritional control of rat liver fatty acid synthase and S14 mRNA abundance. J. Nutr. 120:218-224.

12.
Crenshaw, J. D., C. S. Park, P. M. Swantek, W. L. Keller and R. C.Zimprich. 1989a. Lactation response of gilts to a phased feeding regimen designed to induce compensatory growth. J. Anim. Sci. 67(Suppl. 2):107-108(Abstr.).

13.
Crenshaw, J. D., C. S. Park, P. M. Swantek, M. P. Storlie, W. L.Keller and R. C. Zimprich. 1989b. Growth, reproduction and lactation response of gilts to a phased feeding regimen designed to induce compensatory growth. J. Anim. Sci. 67 (Suppl. 1):228(Abstr.).

14.
Drouillard, J. S. 1990. Changes in visceral organs, body composition and performance of ruminants in response to discontinuous pattern of growth. Ph. D. Diss., Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln.

15.
Dulloo, A. G., J. Jacquet and J-P Montani. 2002. Pathways from weight fluctuations to metabolic diseases: focus on maladaptive thermogenesis during catch-up fat. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 26 (Suppl. 2): S46-57. crossref(new window)

16.
Emery, R. S. 1979. Deposition, secretion, transport and oxidation of fat in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 48(6):1530-1537.

17.
Grimaldi, P. A. 2001. The roles of PPARs in adipocyte differentiation. Prog. Lipid. Res. 40(4):269-281. crossref(new window)

18.
Harris, P. M. and E. M. Widdowson. 1978. Deposition of fat in the body of the rat during rehabilitation after early undernutrition. Br. J. Nutr. 39:201-211. crossref(new window)

19.
Hornick, J. K., C. Van Eenaeme, O. Gérard, I. Dufrasne and L. Istasse. 2000. Mechanisms of reduced and compensatory growth. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 19(2):121-132. crossref(new window)

20.
Huntington, G. B., E. J. Zetina, J. M. Whitt and W. Potts. 1996. Effects of dietary concentrate level on nutrient absorption, liver metabolism, and urea kinetics of beef steers fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3086-3095

21.
Jang, K., Y. J. Choi, H. J. Lee, Y. Y. Cho, J. S. Kim, B. S. Ahn, I. K.Han, K. H. Myung and Y. S. Kim. 1995. Effects of stair-step growth pattern on improvement of production in holstein heifers. Kor. J. Anim. Nutr. Feed. 19(2):135-141.

22.
Jin, M. G., H. G. Lee, Z. S. Hong, J. H. Wang, Y. H. Yin, R. H. Jin,K. K. Cho and Y. J. Choi. 2004. Effect of stepped pattern of feed intake using rice straw as roughage source on regulation of growth, reproduction and lactation in dairy heifers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 17(6):794-798. crossref(new window)

23.
JMGA. 1988. New beef carcass grading standards. Japan Meat Grading Association, Tokyo, Japan.

24.
Kaestner, K. H., J. M. Ntambi, T. Kelly, Jr. and M. D. Lane. 1989.Differentiation-induced gene expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. A second differentially expressed gene encoding stearoyl-CoA desaturase. J. Biol. Chem. 264(25): 14755-14761.

25.
Koch, A. 1982. A kinetic model for growth as a function of time and nutritional status. Growth 46:74-87.

26.
Ledin, I. 1984. Effect of restricted feeding and realimentation on growth, carcass composition and organ growth during the first seven days of realimentation in rabbit. Acta Agric. Scand. 34:54-66. crossref(new window)

27.
Lee, H. G., Y. J. Choi, S. R. Lee, H. Kuwayama, H. Hidari and S.K. You. 2005. Effects of dietary protein and growth hormonereleasing peptide(GHRP-2) on plasma IGF-1 and IGFBPs in Hostein steers. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 28:134-146. crossref(new window)

28.
Livak, K. J. andT. D. Schmittgen. 2001. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T) Method, Methods 25(4):402-408. crossref(new window)

29.
MacDougald, O, A. and M. D. Lane. 1995. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 64:345-373. crossref(new window)

30.
Mariashiara, S., S. F. Yet, Y. Moon, J. Y. Chun and H. S. Sul. 1995. Hormonal and nutritional regulation of the fatty acid synthase promoter in transgenic mice. J. Biol. Chem. 270:30339-30343. crossref(new window)

31.
McManus, W. R. 1972. Studies of compensatory growth in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 79:1. crossref(new window)

32.
Murray, R. K., D. K. Granner, P. A. Mayes and V. W. Rodwell.2000. Biosynthesis of fatty acids. In Harper's Biochemistry 25ed, Prentice-Hall, NJ. 230-237.

33.
Nelsen, T. C., C. R. Long and T. C. Cartwright. 1982.Postinflection growth in straightbred and crossbred cattle. I. Heterosis for weight, height, and maturing rate. J. Anim. Sci. 55:280-292.

34.
Park, C. S., G. R. Fisher and C. N. Haugse. 1980. Effect of dietary protein and sunflower meal on blood serum cholesterol of dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1451-1461. crossref(new window)

35.
Park, C, S., W. Rafalowski and G. D. Marx. 1983. Effect of dietary fat supplement on lipid metabolism of Holstein heifers. J. Dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 66:528-534. crossref(new window)

36.
Park, C. S., G. M. Erickson, Y. J. Choi and G. D. Marx. 1987.Effect of compensatory growth on regulation of growth and lactation: response of dairy heifers to a stair-step growth pattern. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1751-1758.

37.
Park, C. S., Y. J. Choi, W. L. Keller and R. L. Harrold. 1988. Effects of compensatory growth on milk protein gene expression and mammary differentiation. FASEB J. 2:2619-2624.

38.
Park, C. S., M. G. Baik, W. L. Keller, I. E. Berg and G. M.Erickson. 1989. Role of compensatory growth in lactation: a stair-step nutrient regimen modulates differentiation and lactation of bovine mammary gland. Growth Dev. Aging 53:159-166.

39.
Park, C. S., M. G. Baik, W. L. Keller and W. D. Slanger. 1994. Dietary energy restriction-mediated growth and mammary development in rats. J. Anim. Sci. 72:2319-2324.

40.
Park, C. S., R. B. Danielson, B. S. Kreft, S. H. Kim, Y. S. Moonand W. L. Keller. 1998. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth and effects on lactation potential of developing heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 81:243-249. crossref(new window)

41.
Philippe, C. R., S. Sonia, P. R. Aaron, S. Serge, M. Davide, C. T.Claudia, P. M. Jean, S. Josiane, R. J. Francoise and A. G.Dulloo. 2005. Redistribution of glucose from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat. A link between catch-up growth and later metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 54:751-756. crossref(new window)

42.
Pokniak, J. A. and S. B. Cornejo. 1982. Effects of energy and protein undernutrition on productive performance and carcass, liver and digestive tract composition of broiler males. Nutr. Rep. Int. 26:319-327.

43.
Pothoven, M. A., D. C. Beitz and J. H. Thornton. 1975. Lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue of ad libitum and restricted-fed beef cattle during growth. J. Anim. Sci. 40:957-962.

44.
Rhee, Y. J., J. Y. Kim, S. K. Lee and Y. H. Song. 2005. Prediction of carcass meat quality grade by ultrasound in Hanwoo. J. Anim. Sci. Technol (Kor.). 47(6):1095-1100. crossref(new window)

45.
Ryan, W. J., I. H. Williams and R. J. Moir. 1993a. Compensatory growth in sheep and cattle. I. Growth pattern and feed intake. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1609-1621. crossref(new window)

46.
Ryan, W. J., I. H. Williams and R. J. Moir. 1993b. Compensatory growth in sheep and cattle. II. Changes in body composition and tissue weights. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 44:1623-1633. crossref(new window)

47.
Srkar, N. K., G. A. Lodge, C. J. Williams and J. I. Elliot. 1983. The effects of undernutrition of suckled pigs on subsequent growth and body composition after nutritional rehabilitation. J. Anim. Sci. 57:34-42.

48.
Stufflebeam, J. E., J. F. Blakely, G. B. Lasley, Thompson and D. T.Mayer. 1969. Effect of energy intake upon the levels of certain blood components in young beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 29:992-996.

49.
Sul, H. S. and W. Dong. 1998. Nutritional and hormonal regulation of enzymes in fat synthesis: studies of fatty acid synthase and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene transcription. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 18:331-351. crossref(new window)

50.
USDA. 1989. Official united states standards for grades of beef carcasses. Agric. marketing Serv. USDA. Wahington, DC.

51.
Wilson, P. N. and D. F. Osbourn. 1960. Compensatory growth after undernutrition in mammals and birds. Biol. Rev. 35:324-363.

52.
Yambaymaba, E. S. K., M. A. Price and G. R. Foxcroft. 1996. Hormonal status, metabolic changes, and resting matabolic rate in beef heifers undergoing compensatory growth. J. Anim. Sci. 74:57-69.