Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers
Seo, Ja-Kyeom; Yang, Ji-Young; Kim, Hyun-J.; Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Cho, W.M.; Ha, Jong-K.;
  PDF(new window)
Three rumen-cannulated Holstein steers were fed three diets, each with a different synchrony index (SI) (LS: 0.77, MS: 0.81, and HS: 0.83), in order to examine the effect of diet on rumen fermentation, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Synchrony index was calculated based on the carbohydrate and crude protein fractions of each ingredient and their degradation rates. Feeding the steers diets with different SIs did not influence dry matter, crude protein, NDF, or ADF digestibility. The concentrations of total and individual VFA in the rumens of steers that were fed the two higher-SI diets were higher than in those fed the low-SI diet (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the two higher-SI diets. One hour after feeding, steers on the LS diet had lower ruminal pHs than did those fed the MS or HS diets (p<0.05), and animals on the LS diet generally showed higher ruminal -N levels than did animals on the other diets, with the 4-h post-feeding difference being significant (p<0.05). Steers receiving the LS diet excreted more nitrogen (N) in their urine than did those on the two higher-SI diets (p<0.05), and the total N excretion of those on the LS diet was also higher (p<0.05). Microbial N levels calculated from the concentration of urinary purine derivatives were generally higher when the SI was higher, with the highest microbial protein synthesis being produced by steers on the HS diet (p<0.05). In conclusion, in the current study, ingestion of a synchronous diet by Holstein steers improved microbial protein synthesis and VFA production and decreased total N output.
Synchrony Index;Carbohydrate and Protein Fraction;Nitrogen Utilization;Purine Derivatives;Ruminal pH;Ammonia;Volatile Fatty Acids;
 Cited by
Effects of Synchronicity of Carbohydrate and Protein Degradation on Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Protein Synthesis,;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2013. vol.26. 3, pp.358-365 crossref(new window)
Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using In vitro Rumen Fermentation,;;;;;;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2015. vol.28. 1, pp.50-57 crossref(new window)
Effect of carbohydrate source and cottonseed meal level in the concentrate: IV. Feed intake, rumen fermentation and milk production in milking cows, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2013, 45, 2, 447  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of Soybean Meal and Soluble Starch on Biogenic Amine Production and Microbial Diversity Using In vitro Rumen Fermentation, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2014, 28, 1, 50  crossref(new windwow)
Growth performance of Brangus steers fed graded levels of sun-dried broiler litter as a substitute for cottonseed cake, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2015, 47, 6, 1055  crossref(new windwow)
Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes, Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 2017, 41, 3, 288  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of different carbohydrate sources on activity of rumen microbial enzymes and nitrogen retention in sheep fed diet containing recycled poultry bedding, Journal of Applied Animal Research, 2018, 46, 1, 50  crossref(new windwow)
Aldrich, J. M., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga and L. C. Griel. 1993.Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effects on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1091-1105. crossref(new window)

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th Edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia.

Biricik, Hakan, I. I. Turkmen, G. Deniz, B. H. Gulmez, H.Gencoglu and Birgul Bozan. 2006. Effects of synchronizing starch and protein degradation in rumen on fermentation, nutrient utilization and total tract digestibility in sheep. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 5:341-348.

Casper, David P., Harouna A. Maiga, Michel J. Brouk, and David J.Schingoethe. 1999. Synchronization of carbohydrate and protein sources on fermentation and passage rates in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:1779-1790. crossref(new window)

Chamberlain, D. G. and J. J. Choung. 1995. The importance of rate of ruminal fermentation of energy sources in diets for dairy cows, In: Recent advances in animal nutrition (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and D. J. A. Cole). Nottingham, Univ. Press. UK. pp. 67-89.

Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified reagent for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130-132.

Chanjula, P., M. Wanapat, C. Wachirapakorn and P. Rowlinson.2004. Effects of synchronizing starch sources and protein (NPN) in the rumen on feed intake, rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient utilization and performance of lactating dairu cows. Asian-Asut. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1400-1410. crossref(new window)

Chen, X. B., D. B. F. D. Hovell, E. R. Orskov and D. S. Brown.1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants: Effect of exogenous nucleic acid supply on purine derivative excretion by sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 63:131-142. crossref(new window)

Chen, X. B., Y. K. Chen, M. F. Franklin, E. R. Orskov and W. J.Shand. 1992. The effect of feed intake and body weight on purine derivative excretion and microbial protein supply in sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1534-1542.

Chumpawadee, S., K. Sommart, T. Vongpralub and V. Pattarajinda.2006. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, blood urea nitrogen and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:181-188.

Clark, J. H., T. K. Klusmeyer and M. R. Cameron. 1992. Microbial protein synthesis and flows of nitrogen fractions to the duodenum of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 75:2304-2323. crossref(new window)

Dewhurst, R. J., D. R. Davies and R. J. Merry. 2000. Microbial protein supply from the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 85:1-21. crossref(new window)

Elseed, F. A. M. A. 2005. Effect of supplemental protein feeding frequency on ruminal characteristics and microbial N production in sheep fed treated rice straw. Small Rumin. Res. 57:11-17. crossref(new window)

Erwin, W. S., J. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fetty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluids by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1786-1771.

George, S. K., M. T. Dipu, U. R. Mehra, P. Singh, A. K. Verma andJ. S. Ramgaokar. 2006. Improved HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine in cattle urine. J. Chromatogr. B 832:134-137. crossref(new window)

Gill, M. 1991. Modelling nutrient supply and utilization by ruminants. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition (Ed. W. Haresign and D. J. A. Cole). Butterworth Heinman, Oxford, UK. pp. 211-236.

Hall, M. B. and G. B. Huntington. 2008. Nutrient synchrony: Sound in theory, elusive in practice. J. Anim. Sci. 86:E287-E292.

Herrera-Saldana, R., R. Gomez-Alarcon, M. Torabi and J. T. Huber.1990. Influence of synchronizing protein and starch degradation in the rumen on nutrient utilization and microbial protein synthesis. J. Dairy Sci. 73:142-148. crossref(new window)

Hoover, W. H. and S. R. Stokes. 1991. Balancing carbohydrates and proteins for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3630-3644. crossref(new window)

Joo, J. W., G. S. Bae, W. K. Min, H. S. Choi, W. J. Maeng, Y. H.Chung and M. B. Chang. 2005. Effect of protein sources on rumen microbial protein synthesis using rumen simulated continuous culture system. Asian-Asut. J. Anim. Sci. 18:326-331. crossref(new window)

Kaswari, T., L. Peter, G. Flachowsky and U. T. Meulen. 2006. Studies on the relationship between the synthesis in the rumen of dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 139:1-22.

Khalili, H. and P. Huhtanen. 1991. Sucrose supplements in cattle given a grass silage based diet. 2. Digestion of cell wall carbohydrates. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 33:263-273. crossref(new window)

Khezri, A., K. Rezayazdi, M. Danesh. Mesgaran and M. Moradi-Sharbabk. 2009. Effect of different rumen-degradable carbohydrates on rumen fermentation, nitrogen metabolism and lactation performance of Holstein dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22:651-658. crossref(new window)

Kim, K. H., J. J. Choung and D. G. Chamberlain. 1999. Effects of varying degrees of synchrony of energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on the synthesis of microbial protein in cattle consuming a diet of grass silage and cereal-based concentrate. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79:1441-1447. crossref(new window)

Kim, K. H., S. S. Lee, B. T. Jeon and C. W. Kang. 2000. Effects of the pattern of energy supply on the efficiency of nitrogen utilization for microbial protein synthesis in the non-lactating cows consuming grass silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 13:962-966. crossref(new window)

Kolver, E., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga and T. J. Cassidy. 1998. Synchronization of ruminal degradation of supplemental carbohydrate with pasture nitrogen in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci. 81:2017-2028. crossref(new window)

Mahr-un-Nisa, A. Javaid, M. Aasif Shahzad and M. Sarwar. 2008. Influence of varying ruminally degradable to undegradable protein ratio on nutrient intake, milk yield, nitrogen balance, conception rate and days open in early lactating Nili-Ravi Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:1303-1311. crossref(new window)

Nocek, J. E. and J. B. Russell. 1988. Protein and energy as an integrated system. Relationship ruminall protein and carbohydrate availability to microbial protein synthesis and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2070-2107. crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 2000. Nutrient requirement of beef cattle. 7th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Perez, J. F., J. Balcells, J. A. Guada and C. Castrillo. 1997. Rumen microbial production estimated either from urinary purine derivative excretion or from direct measurements of 15N and purine bases as microbial markers: effect of protein source and rumen bacterial isolates. Anim. Sci. 65:225-236. crossref(new window)

Rotger, A., A. Ferret, S. Calsamiglia and X. Manteca. 2006.Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1188-1196.

SAS. 1996. SAS user's guide (Version 7). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

Shabi, Z., A. Arieli, I. Bruckental, Y. Aharoni, S. Zamwel, A. Borand H. Tagari. 1998. Effect of the synchronization of the degradation of dietary crude protein and organic matter and feeding frequency on ruminal fermentation and flow of digesta in the abomasums of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1991-2000. crossref(new window)

Sinclair, L. A., P. C. Garnsworthy, P. Beardsworth, P. Freeman and P. J. Buttery. 1991. The use of cytosine as a marker to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Anim. Prod. 52:592 (Abstr).

Sinclair, L. A., P. C. Garnsworthy, J. R. Newbold and P. J. Buttery.1993. Effect of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in the sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 120:251-263. crossref(new window)

Sinclair, L. A., P. C. Garnsworthy, J. R. Newbold and P. J. Buttery.1995. Effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen release in diets with a similar carbohydrate composition on rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 124:463-472. crossref(new window)

Sniffen, C. J., J. D. O’Connor, P. J. Van Soest, D. G. Fox and J. B. Russell. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets: II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3562-3577.

Strobel, H. J. and J. B. Russell. 1986. Effect of pH and energy spilling on bacterial protein synthesis by carbohydrate-limited cultures of mixed rumen bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2941-2946. crossref(new window)

Valkeners, D., A.Thewis, F. Piron and Y. Beekers. 2004. Effect of imbalance between energy and nitrogen supplies on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double muscled belgian blue bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1818-1825.

Valkeners, D., A. Thewis, S. Amant and Y. Beckers. 2006. Effect of various levels of imbalance between energy and nitrogen release in the rumen on microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled Belgian Blue Bulls fed a corn-silage based diet. J. Anim. Sci. 84:877-885.

Valkeners, D., A. Thewis, M. Van laere and Y. Beckers. 2008. Effects of rumen-degradable protein balance deficit on voluntary intake, microbial protein synthesis, and nitrogen metabolism in growing double-muscled Belgian blue bulls fed corn silage-based diet. J. Anim. Sci. 86:680-690.

Van Soest, P. J. and C. J. Sniffen. 1984. Nitrogen fractions in NDF and ADF. Proc. Dist. Feed Conf. 39:73.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583. crossref(new window)

Witt, M. W., L. A. Sinclair, R. G. Wilkinson and P. J. Buttery.1999a. The effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen supply to the rumen on the production and metabolism of sheep: food characterization and growth and metabolism of ewe lambs given food ad libitum. Anim. Sci. 69:223-235.

Witt, M. W., L. A. Sinclair, R. G. Wilkinson and P. J. Buttery.1999b. The effects of synchronizing the rate of dietary energy and nitrogen supply to the rumen on the metabolism and growth of ram lambs given food at a restricted level. Anim. Sci. 69:627-636.

Yang, J. Y., J. Seo, H. J. Kim, S. Seo and Jong K. Ha. 2010.Nutrient synchrony: Is it a suitable strategy to improve nitrogen utilization and animal performance? Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:972-979. crossref(new window)