Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Persimmon (Diospros kaki L.) Vinegar as a Dietary Supplement on Feed Intake, Digestibility, and Ruminal Fermentation Indices in Sheep
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Persimmon (Diospros kaki L.) Vinegar as a Dietary Supplement on Feed Intake, Digestibility, and Ruminal Fermentation Indices in Sheep
Shin, J.H.; Ko, Y.D.; Kim, B.W.; Kim, S.C.;
  PDF(new window)
This study estimated the effect of fermented persimmon (Diospros kaki L.) extract (FPE) supplement on feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen (N) balance, and rumen fermentation characteristics in sheep. Five male sheep (CorriedalePolwarth) with average body weight of were housed in metabolism crates and assigned to a 55 Latin square design with five consecutive 20-d periods which consisted of 14-d adaptation and 6-d data collection. The sheep were fed ad libitum a diet containing concentrate and rice straw (3:7). The five treatments were FPE supplemented at 0 (Control), 5, 10, 20, and 30 g/kg of concentrate. Intakes of dry matter (DM, p<0.01), organic matter (OM, p<0.01), neutral detergent fiber (NDF, p<0.05), acid detergent fiber (ADF, p<0.05), and nitrogen-free extract (NFE, p<0.01) increased quadratically with increasing intake of FPE supplement and maximized (p<0.05) at 10 g/kg FPE. The digestibilities of DM (p<0.05), OM (p<0.05), crude protein (p<0.01), and NFE (p<0.01) increased quadratically with increasing amount of FPE supplement, and sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets had greater (p<0.05) DM, OM, and NFE digestibilites than the Control treatment. By increasing FPE supplement concentration, N intake (p<0.01) and fecal N (p<0.05) increased linearly, whereas retained N (p<0.05) and retained N ratio (p<0.05) increased quadratically. The retained N was maximized (p<0.05) in sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets. The mean rumen pH was not affected by FPE supplement, but there was a quadratic increase (p<0.05) of mean rumen ammonia N concentration and a linear increase (p<0.01) in mean rumen total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and acetate concentrations. The mean concentration of rumen propionate in sheep fed all FPE supplemented diets was greater (p<0.05) than the Control, but the mean ratios of rumen acetate to propionate in sheep fed 5 and 10 g/kg diets were lower (p<0.05) than that of Control sheep. In conclusion, FPE supplemented at 5-10 g/kg of concentrate improved feed intake, the digestibilites of OM and NFE, N metabolism, and rumen fermentation indices of sheep.
Fermented Persimmon Extract;Digestibility;Nitrogen Balance;Sheep;
 Cited by
Effects of fermented persimmon extract supplements on chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of barley silage, Animal Science Journal, 2012, 84, 5, 403  crossref(new windwow)
Adesogan, A. T., N. K. Krueger, M. B. Salawu, D. B. Dean and C. R. Staples. 2004. The influence of treatment with dual-purpose bacterial inoculants or soluble carbohydrates on the fermentation and aerobic stability of bermudagrass. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3407-3416. crossref(new window)

AFRC. 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. An advisory manual prepared by the AFRC Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

AOAC. 1965. Official methods of analysis, 10th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA.

AOAC. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC, USA.

Chaney, A. L. and E. P. Marbach. 1962. Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia. Clin. Chem. 8:130-132.

Erwin, E. S., J. Marco and E. M. Emery. 1961. Volatile fatty acid analysis of blood and rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Dairy Sci. 44:1768-1771. crossref(new window)

Fenner, H. and J. M. Elliot. 1963. Quantitative method for determining the steam volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid by gas chromatography. J. Anim. Sci. 22:624-627.

Jeong, Y. J., J. H. Seo, N. Y. Park, S. R. Shin and K. S. Kim. 1999. Changes in the components of persimmon vinegars by two stages fermentation. Kor. J. Postharvest Sci. Technol. 6:233-238.

Kim, S. C., A. T. Adesogan, J. H. Kim and Y. D. Ko. 2006a. Influence of replacing rice straw with wormwood (Artemisia montana) silage on feed intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation characteristics of sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 128:1-13. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. C., A. T. Adesogan, J. H. Shin, M. D. Lee and Y. D. Ko. 2006b. The effects of increasing the level of dietary wormwood (Artemisia montana Pampan) on intake, digestibility, N balance and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep. Live. Sci. 100:261-269. crossref(new window)

Kittelmann, M., W. W. Stamm, H. Follmann and H. G. Truper. 1989. Isolation and classification of acetic acid bacteria from high percentage vinegar fermentations. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 30:47-52.

Ko, Y. D., J. H. Kim, A. T. Adesogan, H. M. Ha and S. C. Kim. 2006. The effect of replacing rice straw with dry wormwood (Artemisia sp.) on intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 125:99-110. crossref(new window)

Kook, K. and K. H. Kim. 2003. The effects of supplemental level of bamboo vinegar on growth performance, serum profile and meat quality in fattening Hanwoo cow. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 45:57-68. crossref(new window)

Moon, S. Y., H. C. Chung and H. N. Yoon. 1997. Comparative analysis of commercial vinegar in physicochemical properties, minor components and organoleptic tastes. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 29:663-670.

Nader, G. A. and P. H. Robinson. 2008. Effects of maceration of rice straw on voluntary intake and performance of growing beef cattle fed rice straw-based rations. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 146:74-86. crossref(new window)

National Rural Living Science Institute. 1996. Food composition table (in Korea). 5th rev. ed. Suwon, South Korea. p. 142.

NRC. 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep. 6th rev. ed. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Reynolds, P. J., H. F. Tyrrell and P. W. Moe. 1979. Effects of ruminal infusion of acetic acid onto three hay to concentrate ratios on apparent digestibilities and rumen parameters in cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 48:1491-1500.

Sakanaka, S. and Y. Ishihara. 2008. Comparison of antioxidant properties of persimmon vinegar and some other commercial vinegar in radical-scavenging assays and on lipid oxidation in tuna homogenates. Food Chem. 107:739-744. crossref(new window)

SAS. 2000. The statistical analysis system. Version 9. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Shimoji, Y., Y. Tamura, Y. Nakamura, K. Nanda, S. Niishidai, Y. Nishikawa, N. Ishihara, K. Uenakai and H. Ohigashi. 2002. Isolation and identification of DPPH radical scavenging compounds in Kurosu (Japanese unpolished rice vinegar). J. Agri. Food Chem. 50:6501-6503. crossref(new window)

Thompson, D. P. 1986. Effect of essential oils on spore germination of Rhizopus, Mucor and Aspergillus species. Mycologia 78:482-485. crossref(new window)

Tonroy, B. R. and T. W. Perry. 1974. Effect of corn preservation treatments on in vitro digestibility, ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid formation. J. Anim. Sci. 38:676-680.

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3568-3597. crossref(new window)

Waltz, D. M. and S. C. Loerch. 1986. Effect of acid and alkali treatment of soybean meal on nitrogen utilization by ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 63:879-887.

Weinberg, A. G., G. Ashbell, Y. Hen, A. Azrieli, G. Szakacs and I. Filya. 2002. Ensiling whole-crop wheat and corn in large containers with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28:7-11. crossref(new window)

Woo, S. M., S. Y. Jang, O. M. Kim, K. S. Youn and Y. J. Jeong. 2004. Antimicrobial effects of vinegar on the harmful foodborn organisms. Kor. J. Food Preserv. 11:117-121.

Wood, J. B., M. R. Adams, J. G. Anderson, C. G. Beddows, M. A. Borowitzka, J. L. Cordier, T. J. Elliott, G. H. Fleet, M. S. Fowler, M. Ganzle, A. Godfrey, W. P. Hammes and L. J. Harris. 1998. Microbiology of fermented foods, Second Edition. In: Vinegar. Blackie Academic and Professional (Ed. M. R. Adams), pp. 1-44.

Yoon, H. N., S. Y. Moon and S. H. Song. 1998. Volatile compounds and sensory odor properties of commercial vinegar. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 30:299-305.