Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Sardine Fish Silage on Broiler Performance, Meat Quality and Sensory Characteristics under Closed and Open-sided Housing Systems
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Sardine Fish Silage on Broiler Performance, Meat Quality and Sensory Characteristics under Closed and Open-sided Housing Systems
Al-Marzooqi, W.; Al-Farsi, M.A.; Kadim, I.T.; Mahgoub, O.; Goddard, J.S.;
  PDF(new window)
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of fish silage prepared from Indian oil sardines, Sardinella longiceps, as partial replacement of soybean meal as a sole source of protein for growing broiler chickens. The main objective of Experiment 1, an ileal digestibility assay, was to assess the nutritional value of fish silage compared with soybean meal for feeding broiler chickens. The two test ingredients, soybean meal and dried fish silage, were incorporated into semi-synthetic diets, as the only component containing protein. The ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids of fish silage were considerably higher than those of soybean meal (p<0.001). The lower digestibility of amino acids from soybean meal was related to the presence of anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitors. Fish silage had higher levels of sulphur-containing amino acids than soybean meal. The objective of Experiment 2, a growth study, was to evaluate the effect of feeding fish silage on performance and meat quality characteristics of broiler chickens raised under closed and open-sided housing systems. Four diets containing various levels of fish silage (0, 10, 20 and 30%) were evaluated. Daily feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were measured. At the end of Experiment 2, 96 birds were randomly selected and slaughtered to evaluate meat quality characteristics. Housing type had significant effects on feed intake and body weight gain (p<0.01). Birds in the open-sided house consumed 4.7% less amount of feed and gained 10.6% less than their counterparts in a closed house. Birds in both houses fed diets containing 10 and 20% fish silage gained more than birds fed 30% fish silage. The current study produced evidence that fish silage can replace up to 20% of soybean meal in broiler diets without affecting either growth performance or the sensory quality of broiler meat.
Ileal Digestibility;Fish Silage;Performance;Meat Quality;Broiler Chicks;
 Cited by
Effect of Partial Replacement of Soybean Meal with Fish Silage on the Performance of Broilers on Conventional Starter and Finisher Diets, International Journal of Poultry Science, 2016, 15, 8, 313  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Feeding Prosopis juliflora Pods with and Without Exogenous Enzyme on Performance, Meat Quality and Health of Broiler Chickens, International Journal of Poultry Science, 2015, 14, 2, 76  crossref(new windwow)
Protein hydrolysates from animal processing by-products as a source of bioactive molecules with interest in animal feeding: A review, Food Research International, 2015, 73, 204  crossref(new windwow)
Diet inclusion of devil fish (Plecostomus spp.) silage and its impacts on ruminal fermentation and growth performance of growing lambs in hot regions of Mexico, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2015, 47, 5, 861  crossref(new windwow)
Abdullah, Y., A. Abdullah, Al-Beitawi Nafez, M. S. Rjoup Murad, I. Qudsieh Rasha and A. A. Ishmais. Majdi. 2010. Growth performance, carcass and meat quality characteristics of different commercial crosses of broiler strains of chicken. J. Poult. Sci. 47:13-21. crossref(new window)

Achinewhu, S. C. and D. Hewitt. 1979. Assessment of the nutritional quality of protein: The use of ileal digestibility of amino acids as measures of their availabilities. Br. J. Nutr. 41:559-571. crossref(new window)

Al-Marzooqi, W., I. T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub, M. Al-Busaidi, S. M. Al-Lawati, R. Al-Maqbaly, S. Al-Wheebi and A. N. Al-Bakery. 2010. Apparent ileal amino acids digestibility of four varieties of barley for two strains of chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 9:527-532. crossref(new window)

Al-Marzooqi, W. and J. Wiseman. 2009. Effect of extrusion under controlled temperature and moisture conditions on ileal apparent amino acid and starch digestibility in peas determined with young broilers. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 153:113-130. crossref(new window)

Alwan, S. R., D. J. Buckley and T. P. O'Connor. 1993. Silage from fish waste: Chemical and microbiological aspects. Irish J. Agric. Food Res. 32:75-81.

AOAC. 2000. Official method of analysis. 17th Rev. Ed. Association of Official Method of Analysis of The Association of Analytical Chemists Washington, DC.

Arruda, L. F., R. Borghesi and M. Oetterer. 2007. Use fish waste as silage - a review. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 50:879-886. crossref(new window)

Carroll, K. K. 1986. Biological effects of fish oils in relation to chronic diseases. Lipids 21:731-732. crossref(new window)

Clarke, E. J. and J. Wiseman. 2000. Developments in plant breeding for improved nutritional quality of soya beans I. Protein and amino acid content. J. Agric. Sci. 134:111-124. crossref(new window)

Clarke, E. J. and J. Wiseman. 2005. Effects of variability in trypsin inhibitor content of soya bean meals on true and apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and pancreas size in broiler chicks. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 121:125-138. crossref(new window)

Crawford, L., M. L. J. Kretsch, D. W. Peterson and A. L. Liyblade. 1975. The remedial and preventative effect of dietary ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ on the development of ishy flavours in turkey meat. J. Food Sci. 40:751-755. crossref(new window)

Decker, E. A. and Z. Xu. 1998. Minimizing rancidity in muscle foods. Food Technol. 52:54-59.

Dorr, J. A. 1991. Small pelagic fish, final report. Omani-American Joint Commission.

Espe, M., H. Haaland and L. R. Njaa. 1992. Substituting of fish silage protein and free amino acid mixture for fish meal protein in a chicken diet. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58:315-319. crossref(new window)

Z`Fry, J. L., P. Van Walleghem, P. W. Waldroup and R. H. Harms. 1965. Fish meal studies. 2. Effects of levels and source of "fishy flavor" in broiler meat. Poult. Sci. 44:1016-1019. crossref(new window)

Gildberg, A. 1993. Review: enzymic processing of marine raw materials. Process Biochem. 28:1-15. crossref(new window)

Green, S., J. Wiseman and D. J. A. Cole. 1988. Examination of stability, and its effect on the nutritive value, of fish silage in diets for growing pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21:43-56. crossref(new window)

Goddard, J. S. and J. S. M. Perret. 2005. Co-drying fish silage for use in aquafeeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 118:337-342. crossref(new window)

Herring, H. K., R. G. Cassens, G. G. Suess, V. H. Brungardt and E. J. Briskey. 1967. Tenderness and associated characteristics of stretched and contracted bovine muscle. J. Food Sci. 32:317.

Hillman, P. E., N. R. Scott and A. van Tienhoven. 1985. Physiological responses and adaptations to hot and cold environments. Pages 27-71 in: Stress Physiology in Livestock. (Ed. M. K. Yousef). Vol. 3, Poultry CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL.

Huang, Y. X. and E. L. Miller. 1993. Iron-induced TBARS as an indicator of oxidative stability of fresh chicken meat. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry meat (Ed. P. Colin, F. Culioli and H. Ricard). pp. 430- 434. Tours, France.

Hulan, H. W., R. G. Ackman, W. M. N. Ratnayake and F. G. Proudfoot. 1988. Omega-3 fatty acids levels and performance of broiler chickens fed redfish meal or redfish oil. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 68:533-547. crossref(new window)

Johnson, R. J., R. Brown, P. Eason and J. Sumner. 1985. The nutritional quality of two types of fish silage for broiler chickens. J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:1051-10565. crossref(new window)

Kadim, I. T., P. J. Moughan and V. Ravindran. 2002. Ileal amino acid digestibility assay for the growing meat chicken comparison of ileal and excreta amino acid digestibility in the chicken. Br. Poult. Sci. 44:588-597.

Kadim, I. T., B. Al-Qamshoui, O. Mahgoub, W. Al-Marzooqi and E. H. Johnson. 2008. Effect of seasonal temperatures and ascorbic acid supplementation on performance of boiler chicken reared in closed and open-sided houses. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 7:655-660. crossref(new window)

Kadim, I. T., B. Al-Qamshoui, O. Mahgoub, W. Al-Marzooqi and E. H. Johnson. 2009. The effects of seasonal temperatures on meat quality characteristics of boiler chicken maintained in open-sided and closed houses. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 8:733-739. crossref(new window)

Kakade, M. L., J. J. Rackis, J. E. McGhee and G. Puski. 1974. Determination of trypsin inhibitor activity of soy products: A collaborative analysis of an improved procedure. Cereal Chem. 51:376-382.

Krogdahl, A. 1985. Fish viscera silage as a protein source for poultry. 2. Experiments with meat-type chickens and ducks. Acta Agric. Scand. 35:24-32. crossref(new window)

Leeson, S. and J. O. Atteh. 1996. Response of broiler chicks to dietary full fate soybeans excruted at different temperatures prior to or after grinding. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 57:239-245. crossref(new window)

Liener, I. E. and M. L. Kakade. 1980. In: Protease Inhibitors (Ed. I. E. Leiner). Academic Press, New York, USA, pp. 7-71.

Liu, Y., B. G. Lyon, W. R. Windham, C. E. Lyon and E. M. Savage. 2004. Prediction of physical, colour, and sensory characteristics of broiler breasts by visible/near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Poult. Sci. 83:1467-1474. crossref(new window)

Lyon, C. E. and B. G. Lyon. 1990. The relationship of objective shear values and sensory tests to changes in tenderness of broiler breast meat. Poult. Sci. 69:1420-1427. crossref(new window)

Machin, D. H., S. Panigrani, J. Bainton and T. R. Morris. 1990. Performance of broiler chicks fed on low and high oil fish silages in relation to changes taking place in lipids and protein components. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 28:199-223. crossref(new window)

May, J. D., B. D. Lott and J. D. Simmons. 1998. The effect of environmental temperature and body weight on growth rate and feed: gain of male broilers. Poult. Sci. 77:499-501. crossref(new window)

McGovern, R. H., J. J. Feddes, F. E. Robinson and J. A. Hanson. 2000. Growth, carcass characteristics, and incidence of ascites in broilers exposed to environmental fluctuations and oiled litter. Poult. Sci. 79:324-330. crossref(new window)

McNaughton, J. L., J. D. May, F. N. Reece and J. W. Deaton. 1978. Broiler chick utilization of hydrolysed fish protein. Poult. Sci. 57:1157 (Abstract).

McNaughton, J. L. 1981. Soyabean meal-colour, trypsin inhibitor and urease activity as it affects growth of broiles. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 58:313-320. crossref(new window)

Mehaffey, J. M., S. P. Pradhan, J. F. Meullenet, J. L. Emmert, S. R. Mckee and C. M. Owens. 2006. Meat quality evaluation of minimally aged broiler breast fillets from five commercial genetic strains. Poult. Sci. 85:902-908. crossref(new window)

Mielnik, M., M. Rodbotten, M. K. Pettersen, J. Mielnik and A. Nilsson. 1995. Sensory quality of marinated chicken thighs during long-term frozen storage. In: Proceedings of the 12th European Symposium on the Quality of Poultry Meat and 6th European Symposium on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products, 25-29 September 1995. Poultry Meat Quality. pp 461-469. Zaragoza, Spain: Dr. Ricardo Cepero Briz.

Mielnik, M., K. H. Solgaard, P. M. Kjaernes and A. Nilsson. 1996. "Stabiloton" decreases rancidity of marinated chicken breast. In: Proceedings of the 42nd International Congress of Meat Science and Technology, 1-6 September 1996. Meat for the Consumer (Ed. K. I. Hildrum). pp. 123-124. Lillehammer, Norway: Matforte, Norwegain Food Research Institute.

Mikulec, Z., N. Mas, T. Masek and A. Strmotic. 2004. Soyabean meal and sunflower meal as a substitute for fish meal in broiler diet. VETERINARSKI ARHIV 74:271-279.

Nitsan, Z. and I. Nir. 1977. A comparative study of the nutritional and physiological significance of raw and heat treated soya beans in chicks and goslings. Br. J. Nutr. 37:81-91. crossref(new window)

O'Keefe, S. F., F. G. Proudfoot and R. G. Ackman. 1995. Lipid oxidation in meats of omega-3 fatty acid-enriched broiler chickens. Food Res. Int. 28:417-424. crossref(new window)

Opstvedt, J. 1984. Fish fats. In: Fats in Animal Nutrition (Ed. J. Wiseman). pp. 53-82. London, UK: Butter-worths.

Parsons, C. M. 1985. Influence on caecectomy on digestibility of amino acids by roosters fed distillers' dried grains with solubles. J. Agric. Sci. 104:469-472. crossref(new window)

Parsons, C. M., K. Hashimoto, K. J. Wedekind and D. H. Baker. 1991. Soybean protein solubility in potassium hydroxide: an in vitro test of in vivo protein quality. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2918-2924.

Phetteplace, H. W. and B. A. Watkins. 1989. Effects of various n-3 lipid sources on fatty acid compositions in chicken tissues. J. Food Composit. Anal. 2:104-117. crossref(new window)

Qiao, M., D. L. Fletcher, D. P. Smith and J. K. Northcutt. 2002. Effects of raw broiler breast meat color variation on muscle nation and cooked meat quality. Poult. Sci. 81:276-280. crossref(new window)

Raa, J. and A. Gildberg. 1982. Fish silage: A review. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 16:383-419. crossref(new window)

Raharjo, Y. and D. J. Farrell. 1984. A new biological method for determining amino acid digestibility in poultry feedstuffs using a simple cannula, and the influence of dietary fiber on endogeous amino acid output. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 12:29-45. crossref(new window)

Rahmi, M., M. Faid, M. El Yachioui, EH. Berny, M. Fakir and M. Ouhssine. 2008. Protein rich ingredients from fish waste for sheep feeding. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 2:73-77.

Ravindran, V. and R. Blair. 1993. Feed resources for poultry production in Asia and the Pacific. III. Animal protein sources. World's Poult. Sci. J. 47:219-235.

Rosenfeld, D. J., A. G. Gernat, J. D. Macano, J. G. Murillo, G. H. Lopez and J. A. Flores. 1997. The effect of using different levels of shrimp meal in broiler diets. Poult. Sci. 76:581-587. crossref(new window)

Santana-Delgado, H., E. Avila and A. Sotelo. 2008. Preparation of fish silage from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculates) and its evaluation in broiler diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141:129-140. crossref(new window)

SAS, 2001. Statistical analysis system. SAS/STAT Users guide, volume 2, version 6, Cary, NC.

Short, F. J., P. Gorton, J. Wiseman and K. N. Boorman. 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added ad an inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:215-221. crossref(new window)

Sheehy, P. J. A. 1994. Influence of vitamin E on poultry meat quality. In: Vitamin E and Meat Quality - Meat Symposium. Cork, Ireland: faculty of Food Science & Technology and The National Food Biotechnology Centre, University College.

Sibbald, I. R. 1987. Estimation of bioavailable amino acids in feedstuffs for poultry and pigs: A review with emphasis on balance experiments. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:221-300. crossref(new window)

Simpson, M. D. and T. L. Goodwin. 1974. Comparisons between shear values and taste panel scores for predicting tenderness of broilers. Poult. Sci. 53:2042-2046. crossref(new window)

Skrede, A. and N. P. Kjos. 1996. Digestibility of amino acids in fish silage. Page 205 in (Ed. A. F. Nunes, A. V. Portugal, J. P. Costa and J. R. Ribiero). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Protein Metabolism and Nutrition, Vale de Santarem, Portugal, 24-27 May 1995. EAAP Publication no. 81.

Tabook, N. M., I. T. Kadim, O. Mahgoub and W. Al-Marzooqi. 2006. The effect of date fibre supplemented with an exogenous enzyme on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 47:73-82. crossref(new window)

Veltman, J. R., B. C. Hansen, T. D. Tanksley, D. Knabe and S. S. Linton. 1986. Comparison of the nutritive value of different heat-treated commercial soyabean meals: utilisation by chicks in practical type rations. Poult. Sci. 65:1561-1570. crossref(new window)

Viana, M. T., C. Nava Lopez and R. Solana Sansores. 1993. Ensilajes acidos de pescado. Efectos del percalentamiento y adicion de acido fosfórico y cítrico sobre la calidad bioquimica. Cienc. mar 19:415-433.

Vizcarra-Magana, L., E. Avila and A. Sotelo. 1999. Silage preparation from tuna fish waste and its nutritional evaluation in broilers. J. Sci. Food Agric. 79:1915-1922. crossref(new window)

Wiernusz, C. J. and R. G. Teeter. 1993. Feeding effects of broiler thermobalance during thermoneutral and high ambient temperature exposure. Poult. Sci. 72:1917-1924. crossref(new window)

Wiernusz, C. J. and R. G. Teeter. 1996. Acclimation effects on fed and fasted broiler thermobalance during themoneutral and high ambient temperature exposure. Br. Poult. Sci. 37:677-687. crossref(new window)

Wu, Y. C. and R. O. Kellems. 1984. The effects of feeding four fish hydrolyzate meals on broiler performance and carcass sensory characteristics. Poult. Sci. 63:2414-2418. crossref(new window)

Wu, Y. C., R. O. Kellems, Z. A. Holmes and H. S. Nakaue. 1984. The effect of feeding four fish hydrolzate meals on broiler performance and carcass sensory characteristics. Poult. Sci. 63: 2414-2418. crossref(new window)

Yahav, S. 1998. The effect of acute and chronic heat stress on performance and physiological responses of domestic fowl. Trends Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 5:187-194.

Zhu, S., M. N. Raiz and E. W. Lusas. 1996. Effect of different extrusion temperatures and moisture content on lipoxygenase inactivation and protein solubility in soya beans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:3315-3318. crossref(new window)

Zollitsch, W., W. Wetscherek and F. Lettner. 1993. Use of differently processed full fat soya beans in a diet for pig fattening. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 41:237-246. crossref(new window)