Advanced SearchSearch Tips
γ-LA-Supplementation to IVC for IVP Bovine Embryos
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
γ-LA-Supplementation to IVC for IVP Bovine Embryos
Gaja, A.; Meng, C.L.; Sato, M.; Nakajima, T.; Kubota, Chikara; Kojima, T.;
  PDF(new window)
The present study aimed to examine the effects of -linolenic acid (GLA) supplementation to in vitro culture (IVC) medium on in vitro developmental competence, freezability and morphology of in vitro matured and fertilized bovine embryos. In vitro produced (IVP) bovine zygotes were cultured in IVC medium supplemented with 0 (negative control), 15, 31, 62, 125, 250, 500 or 1,000 ppm GLA, 250 ppm linoleic acid albumin (LAA) and without any supplement as a control. Day 6 blastocysts derived from culture control were cultured in IVC medium containing either 62, 250 GLA or 250 LAA for 24 h, and at Day 7 were subjected to freezing or morphological examination by electron microscope. GLA 15 showed a tendency to have a higher cleavage rate at Day 2 (70.3%) than other groups. The hatching rate at Day 9 in LAA (38.2%) was significantly higher than the control and all treatment groups (p<0.05), while the blastocyst rate in LAA (32.4%) did not differ from those of 15 (30.5%), 31 (27.1%), and 62 GLA (33.1%) or the control (35.1%). GLA in concentrations of 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 ppm had significantly detrimental effect on the blastocyst rate compared to 15, 31 and 62 ppm GLA, LAA, and control groups (p<0.05). In contrast, the highest post-thaw survival rate (100%) was observed in the control group (p<0.01). Large lipid droplets were observed in the cytoplasm of trophoblastic cells, even in the control, but were abundant in GLA groups. Taking the results of the study into consideration, the addition of GLA to the culture medium for IVP bovine embryos at the dose of 15 ppm increased the developmental competence of zygotes and enhanced the cleavage rate up to Day 2. However, blastulation rate and post-thaw survival were not increased when GLA was added to the culture media.
-Linolenic Acid;Freezability;Post-thaw Survival;In vitro Produced Bovine Embryo;Trophoblastic Cells;
 Cited by
Abe, H., S. Yamashita, T. Itoh, T. Satoh and H. Hoshi. 1999. Ultrastructure of bovine embryos developed from in vitromatured and -fertilized oocytes: comparative morphological evaluation of embryos cultured either in serum-free medium or in serum-supplemented medium. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 53:325-335 crossref(new window)

Abe, H., S. Yamashita, T. Satoh and H. Hoshi. 2002. Accumulation of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in bovine embryos and cryotolerance of embryos developed in different culture systems using serum-free or serum-containing media. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 61:57-66 crossref(new window)

Brackett, B. G. and K. A. Zuelke. 1993. Analysis of factors involved in the in vitro production of bovine. Theriogenology 39:43-64 crossref(new window)

Caldwell, M. D., H. T. Jonsson and H. B. Jr. Othersen. 1972. Essential fatty acid deficiency in an infant receiving prolonged parenteral alimentation. J. Pediatr. 81:894-898 crossref(new window)

Chapkin, R. S. 1998. Reappraisal of the essential fatty acids In: Fatty acids in food and their health implications 2nd ed. (Ed. C. K. Chow). Culinary and Hospitality Industry Publications Services, NY. pp. 557-568

Crosier, A. E., P. W. Farin, M. J. Dykstra, J. E. Alexander and C. E. Farin. 2001. Ultrastructural morphometry of bovine blastocysts produced in vivo or in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 64:1375-1385 crossref(new window)

Diez, C., D. Le Bourhis, Y. Heyman and J. P. Renard. 1996. Effect of partial lipid removal from in vitro produced bovine zygotes on further development in vitro and on the freezing tolerance of blastocysts. In: Proceedings of the 1996 International Embryo Transfer Society Conference. Theriogenology 45:166 crossref(new window)

Diez, C., Y. Heyman, D. Le Bourhis, C. Guyader-Joly, J. Degrouard and J. P. Renard. 2001. Delipidating in vitroproduced bovine zygotes: Effect on further development and consequences for freezability. Theriogenology 55:923-936 crossref(new window)

Emken, E. A., R. O. Adlof and R. M. Gulley. 1994. Dietary linoleic acid influences desaturation and acylation of deuterium-labeled linoleic and linolenic acids in young adult males. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1213:277-288 crossref(new window)

Hasler, J. F., W. B. Henderson, P. J. Hurtgen, Z. Q. Jin, A. D. McCauley, S. A. Mower, L. Y. B. Nee, L. S. Shuey, J. E. Stokes and S. A. Trimmer. 1995. Production, freezing and transfer of bovine IVF embryos and subsequent calving results. Theriogenology 43:141-152 crossref(new window)

Hochi, S., K. Kimura and A. Hanada. 1999a. Effect of linoleic acid-albumin in the culture medium on freezing sensitivity of in vitro-produced bovine morulae. Theriogenology 52:497-504 crossref(new window)

Hochi, S., A. Kanamori, K. Sugisawa, K. Kimura and A. Hanada. 1999b. Effect of linoleic acid-albumin in the IVM and IVF media on survival of frozen-thawed pronuclear bovine zygotes. J. Mamm. Ova. Res. 16:19-22 crossref(new window)

Imai, K., S. Kobayashi, Y. Goto, O. Dochi and I. Shimohira. 1997. Cryopreservation of bovine embryos obtained by in vitro culture of IVM-IVF oocytes in the presence of linoleic acid albumin. In: Proceedings of the 1997 International Embryo Transfer Society Conference. Theriogenology 47:347 crossref(new window)

Imai, K., S. Matoba, O. Dochi and I. Shimohira. 2002. Different factors affect developmental competence and cryotolerance in in vitro, produced bovine embryo. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:887-891 crossref(new window)

Kaidi, S., A. Van Langendonckt, A. Massip, F. Dessy and I. Donnay. 1999. Cellular alteration after dilution of cryoprotective solutions used for the vitrification of in vitroproduced bovine embryos. Theriogenology 52:515-525 crossref(new window)

Kim, J. Y., M. Kinoshita, M. Ohnishi and Y. Fukui. 2000. Lipid and fatty acid analysis of fresh and frozen-thawed immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes. Reproduction 122:131-138 crossref(new window)

Kojima, T., Y. Zeniya, T. Aoyama, A. Kondo and J. Yoshino. 1997. Dietary administration of fatty acids-enriched mold dried cell containing $\gamma$-linolenic acid to female pigs improves ovulation rate and embryo quality in summer. J. Reprod. Dev. 43:121-127 crossref(new window)

Kreeger, P. K., N. N. Fernandes, T. K. Woodruff and L. D. Shea. 2005. Regulation of mouse follicle development by folliclestimulating hormone in a three-dimensional in vitro culture system is dependent on follicle stage and dose. Biol. Reprod. 73:942-950 crossref(new window)

Krisher, R. L., M. Lane and B. D. Bavister. 1999. Developmental competence and metabolism of bovine embryos cultured in semi-defined and defined culture media. Biol. Reprod. 60:1345-1352 crossref(new window)

Kubota, C., X. Yang, A. Dinnyes, J. Todoroki, H. Yamakuchi, K. Mizoshita, S. Inohae and N. Tabara. 1998. In vitro and in vivo survival of frozen-thawed bovine oocytes after IVF, nuclear transfer, and parthenogenetic activation. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 51:281-286 crossref(new window)

Leibo, S. and N. Loskutoff. 1993. Cryobiology of in vitro-derived bovine embryos Theriogenology 39:81-94 crossref(new window)

Lim, K., G. Jang, K. Ko, W. Lee, H. Park, J. Kim, S. Lee, W. Hwang, B. Lee and S. Kang. 2006. Improved in vitro bovine embryo development and increased efficiency in producing viable calves using defined media. Theriogenology 67:293-302 crossref(new window)

Lonergan, P., D. Rizos, J. Kanka, L. Nemcova, A. M. Mbaye, M. Kingston, M. Wade, P. Duffy and M. P. Boland. 2003. Temporal sensitivity of bovine embryos to culture environment after fertilization and the implications for blastocyst quality. Reproduction 126:337-346 crossref(new window)

McEvoy, T. G., G. D. Coull, P. J. Broadbent, J. S. Hutchinson and B. K. Speake. 2000. Fatty acid composition of lipids in immature cattle, pig and sheep oocytes with intact zona pellucida. J. Reprod. Fertil. 118:163-170 crossref(new window)

Mucci, N., J. Aller, G. G. Kaiser, F. Hozbor, J. Cabodevila and R. H. Alberio. 2006. Effect of estrous cow serum during bovine embryo culture on blastocyst development and cryotolerance after slow freezing or vitrification. Theriogenology 65:1551-1562 crossref(new window)

Park, M. C., J. Y. Kim, S. B. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. D. Park, J. H. Lee, D. S. Oh and J. M. Kim. 2009. The effect of cryopreservation on the mouse embryos at various-pronuclear stages. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 22:174-180

Perez Rigau, A., M. D. Lindemann, E. T. Kornegay, A. F. Harper and B. A. Watkins. 1995. Role of dietary lipids on fetal tissue fatty acid composition and fetal survival in swine at 42 days of gestation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1372-1380

Pratt, H. P. M. and M. A. George. 1989. Organisation and assembly of the surface membrane during early cleavage of the mouse embryo. Dev. Genes Evol. 198:170-178 crossref(new window)

Ravindranatha, B. M., S. Nandi, H. M. Raghu and S. M. Reddy. 2003. In vitro maturation and fertilization of buffalo oocytes: effects of storage of ovaries, IVM temperatures, storage of processed sperm and fertilization media. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 38:21-26 crossref(new window)

Rehman, N. U., M. Sawar and H. A. Samad. 2001. In vitro production of bovine embryos. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1342-1351

Rizos, D., F. Ward, M. P. Boland and P. Lonergan. 2001. Effect of culture system on the yield and quality of bovine blastocysts as assessed by survival after vitrification. Theriogenology 56:1-16 crossref(new window)

Rizos, D., F. Ward, P. Duffy, M. P. Boland and P. Lonergan. 2002a. Consequences of bovine oocyte maturation, fertilisation or early embryo development in vitro versus in vivo: implications for blastocysts quality. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 61:234-248 crossref(new window)

Rizos, D., T. Fair, S. Papadopoulos, M. P. Boland and P. Lonergan. 2002b. Developmental, qualitative, and ultrastructural differences between ovine and bovine embryos produced in vivo or in vitro. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 62:320-327 crossref(new window)

Rizos, D., A. Gutierrez-Adan, S. Perez-Garnelo, J. De La Fuente, M. P. Boland and P. Lonergan. 2003. Bovine embryo culture in the presence or absence of serum: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and messenger RNA expression. Biol. Reprod. 68:236-243

Smeaton, D. C., B. L. Harris, Z. Z. Xu and W. H. Vivanco. 2003. Factors affecting commercial application of embryo technologies in New Zealand: a modelling approach. Theriogenology 59:617-634 crossref(new window)

Squires, E. J. 2003. Manipulation of Growth and Carcass Composition. In: Applied animal endocrinology (Ed. E. J. Squires), CABI publishing, UK. pp. 66-123

Tominaga, K., Y. Hamada, T. Yabuue and T. Ariyoshi. 2000. Effect of linoleic acid-albumin on post-thaw survival of in vitroproduced bovine embryo at the 16-cell stage. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62:465-467 crossref(new window)

Trounson, A., D. Pushett, L. J. Maclellan, I. Lewis and D. K. Gardner. 1994. Current status of IVM/IVF and embryo culture in humans and farm animals. Theriogenology 41:57-66 crossref(new window)

Van De Leemput, E. E., Vos PLAM, E. C. Zeinstra, M. M. Severs, G. C. Van Der Weijden and S. J. Dieleman. 1999. Improved in vitro embryo development using in vivo matured oocytes from heifers superovulated with a controlled preovulatory LH surge. Theriogenology 52:335-349 crossref(new window)

Vitt, U. A., H. J. Kloosterboer, U. M. Rose, J. W. M. Mulders, P. S. Kiesel, S. Bete and P. L. Nayudu. 1998. Isoforms of human recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone: comparison of effects on murine follicle development in vitro. Biol. Reprod. 59:854-861 crossref(new window)

Wheeler, M. B., J. J. Rutledge, A. Fischer-Brown, T. VanEtten, S. Malusky and D. J. Beebe. 2006. Application of sexed semen technology to in vitro embryo production in cattle. Theriogenology 65:219-227 crossref(new window)

Wirtu, G., C. E. Pope, P. Damiani, F. Miller, B. L. Dresser, C. R. Short, R. A. Godke and B. D. Bavister. 2004. Development of in-vitro-derived bovine embryos in protein-free media: effects of amino acids, glucose, pyruvate, lactate, phosphate and osmotic pressure. Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 15:439-449 crossref(new window)

Yahia Khandoker, M. A. M. and H. Tsujii. 1999. Effect of exogenous fatty acids on in vitro development of rat embryos. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:169-173

Zeron, Y., D. Sklan and A. Arav. 2002. Effect of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on biophysical parameters and chilling sensitivity of ewe oocytes. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 61:271-278 crossref(new window)