Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Feeding Purified Zearalenone Contaminated Diets with or without Clay Enterosorbent on Growth, Nutrient Availability, and Genital Organs in Post-weaning Female Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Feeding Purified Zearalenone Contaminated Diets with or without Clay Enterosorbent on Growth, Nutrient Availability, and Genital Organs in Post-weaning Female Pigs
Jiang, S.Z.; Yang, Z.B.; Yang, W.R.; Yao, B.Q.; Zhao, H.; Liu, F.X.; Chen, C.C.; Chi, F.;
  PDF(new window)
The effects of different levels of natural clay enterosorbent on the growth, nutrient availability, and genital organs of post-weaning female pigs fed with an addition of zearalenone (ZEA) were investigated in the study. A total of thirty-five post-weaning gilts () with an average body weight of 12.361.46 kg were used in the test. The gilts were raised individually in metabolism cages and fed a corn-soybean meal-whey basal diet with an addition of 0 or 1 mg/kg of ZEA for 24 d with four levels of natural clay enterosorbent added in the feed. The treatments were: i) control; ii) control+2.5 g/kg clay; iii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA; iv) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+1.25 g/kg clay; v) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+2.5 g/kg clay; vi) control+1 mg/kg ZEA+5.0 g/kg clay; vii) control+1 mg/kg ZEA +10 g/kg clay. Pigs fed diets contaminated with additional purified ZEA had significantly reduced apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), gross energy (GE) and apparent metabolic rate of GE (ME/GE, p<0.05) without changes of net protein utilization (NPU, p>0.05). Final body weight, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), vulva length, vulva width, vulva area, relative weights of genital organ and proliferative changes of the ovary tissues in gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet were increased (p<0.05) compared to the gilts fed the control diet. Addition of natural clay enterosorbent in the ZEA-contaminated diet showed a positive protection effect on ZEA feeding, and the protection was increased linearly or quadratically as clay content increased. However, in pigs fed a diet with clay alone at 2.5 g/kg level there was no significant impact (p>0.05) on all the parameters as compared to the control. It is suggested that feeding ZEA at about 1.0 mg/kg for 24 days might result in a deleterious effect in pigs, and addition of 5 or 10 g clay enterosorbent per kg diet can effectively neutralize the detrimental effects of the ZEA feeding.
Zearalenone;Clay Enterosorbent;Nutrient Availability;Vulva Size;Organ Weight;Histopathology;
 Cited by
Abbes, S., Z. Ouanes, J. B. Salah-Abbes, M. A. Abdel-Wahhab, R. Oueslati and H. Bacha. 2007. Preventive roles of aluminosilicate clay against induction of micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in bone-marrow cells of Balb/c mice treated with Zearalenone. Mutat. Res. 631:85-92

Abbes, S., Z. Ouanes, J. B. Salah-Abbes, Z. Houas, R. Oueslati, H. Bacha and O. Othman. 2006. The protective effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate against haematological, biochemical and pathological changes induced by Zearalenone in mice. Toxicon. 47:567-574 crossref(new window)

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia

Cheng, Y. H., C. F. Weng, B. J. Chen and M. H. Chang. 2006. Toxicity of different Fusarium mycotoxins on growth performance, immune responses and efficacy of a mycotoxin degrading enzyme in pigs. Anim. Res. 55:579-590 crossref(new window)

Diekman, M. A. and G. G. Long. 1989. Blastocyst development on days 10 or 14 after consumption of zearalenone by sows on days 7 to 10 after breeding. Am. J. Vet. Res. 50:1224-1227

Etienne, M. and M. Jemmali. 1982. Effects of Zearalenone (F2) on Estrous Activity and Reproduction in gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1-10

Farnworth, E. R. and H. L. Trenholm. 1981. The effect of acute administration of the mycotoxin zearalenone to female pigs. J. Environ. Sci. Health B, 16:239-252 crossref(new window)

Feng, J., M. Shan, H. Du, X. Han and Z. Xu. 2008. In vitro adsorption of zearalenone by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-natural montmorillonite nanocomposites. Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 113:99-105 crossref(new window)

Fokas, P., G. Zervas, K. Fegeros and P. Zoipoulos. 2004. Assessment of Pb retention coefficient and nutrient utilization in growing pigs diets with added clinoptilolite. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 117:121-129 crossref(new window)

Hauschild, L., P. A. Lovatto, C. R. Lehnen, A. Á. Carvalho, G. G. Garciae and C. A. Mallmann. 2007. Digestibility and metabolism of piglet diets containing zearalenone with addition of organoaluminosilicate. Pesqui. Agropecu. Bras. 42:219-224

James, L. J. and T. K. Smith. 1982. Effect of dietary alfalfa on zearalenone toxicity and metabolism in rats and swine. J. Anim. Sci. 55:110-118

Kalliamurthy, J., P. Geraldine and P. A. Thomas. 1997. Effects of Zearalenone on food consumption, growing rate, organ weight and serum testosterone level in male rats. J. Environ. Biol. 18:115-120

Long, G. G. and M. A. Diekman. 1984. Effect of purified Zearalenone on early gestation in gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 59:1662-1670

Maaroufi, K., L. Chekir, E. E. Creppy, F. Ellouz and H. Bacha. 1996. Zearalenone induces modifications of haematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Toxicon. 34:535-540 crossref(new window)

Mayura, K., M. A. Abdel-Wahhab, K. S. Mckenzie, A. B. Sarr, J. F. Edwards, K. Naguib and T. D. Philips. 1998. Prevention of maternal and developmental toxicity in rats via dietary inclusion of common aflatoxin sorbents: potential for hidden risks. Toxicol. Sci. 41:165-167

National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th Ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC

Obremski, K., M. Gajecki, W. Zwierzchowski, L. Zielonka, I. Otrocka-Domagala, T. Rotkiewicz, A. Mikolajczyk, M. Gajecka and M. Polak. 2003. Influence of zearalenone on reproductive system cell proliferation in gilts. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 6:239-245

Papaioannou, D. S., S. C. Kyriakis, A. Papasteriadis, N. Roumbies, A. Yannakopoulos and C. Alexopoulos. 2002. A field study on the effect of in-feed inclusion of a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) on health status and performance of sows/gilts and their litters. Res. Vet. Sci. 72:51-59

Pfaffl, M. W., I. G. Lange, A. Daxenberger and H. H. D. Meyer. 2001. Tissue-specific expression pattern of estrogen receptors (ER): Quantification of ER$\acute{a}$ and ER$\hat{a}$ mRNA with real-time RT-PCR. APMIS. 109:345-355 crossref(new window)

Pond, W. G., J. T. Yen and V. H.Varel. 1988. Response of growing swine to dietary copper and clinoptilolite supplementation. Nutr. Rep. Int. 37:797-803

Rotter, B. A., D. B. Prelusky and J. J. Pestka. 1996. Toxicology of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). J. Toxicol. Environ. Health. 48:1-34 crossref(new window)

Rainey, M. R., R. C. Tubbs, L. W. Bennet and N. M. Cox. 1990. Prepubertal exposure to dietary zearalenone alters hypothalamo-hypophyseal function but does not impair postpubertal reproductive functions in gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2015-2022

Sabater-Vilarl, M., H. Malekinejad, M. H. J. Selmanl, M. A. M. Doelen and J. Fink-Gremmel. 2007. In vitro assessment of adsorbents aiming to prevent deoxynivalenol and zearalenone mycotoxicoses. Mycopathologia 163:81-90 crossref(new window)

SAS Institute. 2003. SAS/STAT User's Guide: Version 9.1th edn. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina

Speranda, M., B. Liker, T. Speranda, V. Seric, Z. Antunovic, Z. Grabarevic, D. Sencic and Z. Steiner. 2006. Haematological and biochemical parameters of weaned piglets fed on fodder mixture contaminated by zearalenone with addition of clinoptilolite. Acta. Vet. (Beogr.) 56:121-136 crossref(new window)

Stob, M., R. S. Baldwin, J. Tuite, F. H. Andrews and K. G. Gillette. 1962. Isolation of an anabolic, uterotrophic compound from corn infected with Gibberella Zeae. Nature 196:1318

Voss, K. A. and W. M. Haschek. 2007. Fumonisins: toxicokinetics, mechanism of action and toxicity. In: Fusarium and their toxins: Mycology, occurrence, toxicity, control and economic impact (D. P. Morgavi and R. T. Riley). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 137:299-325 crossref(new window)

Ward, T. L., K. L. Watkins, L. L.Southern, P. G. Hoyl and D. D. French. 1991. Interactive effects of sodium zeolite-A and copper in growing swine: growth, and bone and tissue mineral concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 69:726-733

Wasowicz, K., M. Gajecka, J. Calka, E. Jakimiuk and M. Gajecki. 2005. Influence of chronic administration of zearalenone on the processes of apoptosis in the porcine ovary. Vet. Med. (Czech) 50:531-536

Yang, Z. B., H. Zao, C. C. Chen and F. Chi. 2008. Feeding different levels of zearalenone on growth, vulva size, and organ weight in postweanling female pig. Proc. 2008. Joint Meeting. J. Anim. Sci. 86(Suppl. 2):45(Abstr.)

Young, L. G., H. Ping and G. J. King. 1990. Effects of feeding zearalenone to sows on rebreeding and pregnancy. J. Anim. Sci. 68:15-20

Zwierzchowski, W., M. Przybylowicz, K. Obremski, L. Zielonka, E. Skorska-Wyszynska, M. Gajecka, M. Polak, E. Jakimiuk, B. Jana, L. Rybarczyk and M. Gajecki. 2005. Level of zearalenone in blood serum and lesions in ovarian follicles of sexually immature gilts in the course of zearalenone mycotoxicosis. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 8:209-218