Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Chromium on Energy Metabolism in Lambs Fed with Different Dietary Protein Levels
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Chromium on Energy Metabolism in Lambs Fed with Different Dietary Protein Levels
Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fangyu; Li, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoping; Jia, Zhihai;
  PDF(new window)
The effects of chromium (Cr), dietary crude protein (CP) level, and potential interactions of these two factors were investigated in term of energy metabolism in lambs. Forty-eight 9-week-old weaned lambs (DorperSmall-tail Han sheep, male, mean initial body weight = 22.96 kg2.60 kg) were used in a 23 factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0 /kg, 400 /kg or 800 /kg from chromium yeast) and protein levels (low protein: 157 g/d to 171 g/d for each animal, or high protein: 189 g/d to 209 g/d for each animal). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding trial. The lambs were then sacrificed and tissue samples were frozen for further analysis. Chromium at 400 /kg decreased fasting insulin level and the ratio of plasma insulin to glucagon, but these differences were not statistically significant; in contrast, chromium at 800 /kg increased the ratio significantly (p<0.05). Protein at the high level increased plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-) level (p = 0.060). Liver glycogen content was increased significantly by Cr (p<0.05), which also increased liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and adipose hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. At 400 /kg, Cr increased muscle hexokinase (HK) activity. High protein significantly increased G-6-Pase activities in both the liver (p<0.05) and the kidney (p<0.05), but significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.05). For HSL activity in adipose tissue, a CrCP interaction (p<0.05) was observed. Overall, Cr improved energy metabolism, primarily by promoting the glycolytic rate and lipolytic processes, and these regulations were implemented mainly through the modulation by Cr of the insulin signal transduction system. High protein improved gluconeogenesis in both liver and kidney. The interaction of CrCP indicated that 400 /kg Cr could reduce energy consumption in situations where energy was being conserved, but could improve energy utilization when metabolic rate was increased.
Lamb;Chromium;Protein Level;Energy Metabolism;
 Cited by
Dietary Protein Restriction Alters Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Rats,;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2011. vol.24. 9, pp.1274-1281 crossref(new window)
Effects of Chromium Methionine Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Metabolites, Endocrine Parameters, Antioxidant Status, and Immune Traits in Growing Pigs, Biological Trace Element Research, 2014, 162, 1-3, 134  crossref(new windwow)
(Linnaeus), Aquaculture Research, 2017, 1355557X  crossref(new windwow)
Amoikon, E. K., J. M. Fernandez, L. L. Southern, D. L. Thompson Jr., T. L. Ward and B. M. Olcott. 1995. Effect of chromium tripicolinate on growth, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, plasma metabolites, and growth hormone in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:1123-1130

Menuelle, P. and C. Plas. 1991. Variations in the antagonistic effects of insulin and glucagon on glycogen metabolism in cultured foetal hepatocytes. Biochem. J. 277:111-117

Mertz, W. and E. E. Roginski. 1963. The effect of trivalent chromium on galactose entry in rat epididymal fat tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 238:868-872

Mildner, A. M. and S. D. Clarke. 1991. Porcine fatty acid synthase: cloning of a complementary DNA, tissue distribution of its mRNA and suppression of expression by somatotropin and dietary protein. J. Nutr. 121:900-907

Mooney, K. W. and G. L. Cromwell. 1999. Efficacy of chromium picolinate on performance and tissue accretion in pigs with different lean gain potential. J. Anim. Sci. 77:1188-1198

Myers, M. G. Jr., X. J. Sun and M. F. White. 1994. The IRS-1 signaling system. Trends Biochem. Sci. 19:289-294 crossref(new window)

Nepokroeff, C. M., M. R. Lakshmanan and J. W. Porter. 1975. Fatty acid synthase from rat liver. Methods Enzymol. 35:37-44 crossref(new window)

NRC. 1985. Nutrient requirements of sheep, 6th ed, National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA

Ott, E. A. and J. Kivipelto. 1999. Influence of chromium tripicolinate on growth and glucose metabolism in yearling horses. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3022-3030

Pattar, G. R., L. Tackett, P. Liu and J. S. Elmendorf. 2006. Chromiun picolinate positively influences the glucose transporter system via affecting cholesterol homeostasis in adipocytes cultured under hyperglycemic diabetic conditions. Mutat. Res. 610:93-100 crossref(new window)

Robertson, J. B. and P. J. Van Soest. 1981. The detergent system of analysis and its application to human foods, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, New York

Rosebrough, R. W. and N. C. Steele. 1981. Effect of supplemental dietary chromium or nicotinic acid on carbohydrate metabolism during basal, starvation and refeeding periods on poults. Pout. Sci. 60:407-417 crossref(new window)

Ruan, H., P. D. Miles, C. M. Ladd, K. Ross, T. R. Golub, J. M. Olefsky and H. F. Lodish. 2002. Profiling gene transcription in vivo reveals adipose tissue as an immediate target of tumor necrosis factor-$\alpha$: implications for insulin resistance. Diabetes 51:3176-3188 crossref(new window)

Saad, M. F., A. Sharma, R. Michael, M. G. Riad-Gabriel, R. Boyadjian, S. D. Jinagouda, G. M. Steil and V. Kamdar. 1998. Physiological insulinemia acutely modulates plasma leptin. Diabetes 41:544-549

Saltiel, A. R. and C. R. Kahn. 2001. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Nature 414:799- 806 crossref(new window)

SAS. 1993. Statistical Analysis System. SAS/STAT User'guide, Version 6, vol. 2. Cary, NC

Schaftingen, E. V. and I. Gerin. 2002. The glucose-6-phosphatase system. Biochem. J. 362:513-532 crossref(new window)

Sheu, W. H. H., W. J. Lee, R. L. Chang and Y. T. Chen. 2000. Plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha levels and insulin sensitivity in hypertensive subjects. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. 22: 595-606 crossref(new window)

Shillabeer, G., J. Hornford, J. M. Forden, N. C. Wong and D. C. Lau. 1990. Hepatic and adipose tissue lipogenic enzyme mRNA level are suppressed by high fat diets in the rat. J. Lipid Res. 31:623-631

Smith, S., A. Witkowski and A. K. Joshi. 2003. Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase. Prog. Lipid Res. 42:289-317 crossref(new window)

Str${\aa}$lfors, P., P. Bj$\ddot{o}$rgell and P. Belfrage. 1984. Hormonal regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase in intact adipocytes: identification of phosphorylated sites and effects on the phosphorylation by lipolytic hormones and insulin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:3317-3321 crossref(new window)

Sugimoto, S., R. J. Lechleider, S. E. Shoelson, B. G. Neel and C. T. Walsh. 1994. Expression, purification and characterization of SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase, SH-PTP2. J. Biol. Chem. 269:13614-13622

Sumner, J. M. and J. P. McNamara. 2007. Expression of lipolytic genes in the adipose tissue of pregnant and lactating Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5237-5246 crossref(new window)

Sun, X. J., P. Rothenberg, C. R. Kahn, J. M. Backer, E. Araki, P. A. Wilden, D. A. Cahill, B. J. Goldstein and M. F. White. 1991. Structure of the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 defines a unique signal transduction protein. Nature 352:73-77 crossref(new window)

Sztalryd, C. and F. B. Kraemer. 1995. Regulation of hormonesensitive lipase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metabolism 44:1391-1396 crossref(new window)

Van de Ligt, C. P. A., M. D. Lindemann and G. L. Cromwell. 2002. Assessment of chromium tripicolinate supplementation and dietary protein level on growth, carcass, and blood criteria in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2412-2419

Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Roberston and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre NDF and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597 crossref(new window)

Wajchenberg, B. L. 2000. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: their relation to the metabolic syndrome. Endocr. Rev. 21:697-738 crossref(new window)

Watson, R. T. and J. Pessin. 2001. Intracellular organization of insulin signaling and GLUT4 translocation. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 56:175-194 crossref(new window)

Williams, C. C., B. T. Crochet, L. D. Bunting, J. M. Fernandez and C. C. Stanley. 2004. Metabolic responses of periparturient Holstein cows and heifers supplemented with chromium picolinate. Professional Animal Scientist 20:312-318

Yan, X., W. Zhang, J. Cheng, R. Wang, D. O. Kleemann, X. Zhu and Z. Jia. 2008. Effects of chromium yeast on performance, insulin activity, and lipid metabolism in lambs fed different dietary protein levels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21:853-860

Yeaman, S. J. 1994. The multifunctional role of hormone-sensitive lipase in lipid metabolism. Adv. Enzyme Regul. 34:355-370 crossref(new window)