Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Propylene Glycol on Milk Production, Serum Metabolites and Reproductive Performance during the Transition Period of Dairy Cows
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Propylene Glycol on Milk Production, Serum Metabolites and Reproductive Performance during the Transition Period of Dairy Cows
Lien, T.F.; Chang, L.B.; Horng, Y.M.; Wu, Chean-Ping;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral drench of propylene glycol (PG) on milk production, serum metabolites and reproductive performance during the transition period of animals. Twenty-four 2-3 multiparous Holstein cows (average body weight 565 kg, body condition score about 3.6, at the month of gestation) were selected, blocked, and then randomly assigned into a PG and a control group. The control and the PG group cows were orally drenched with water or 50 ml sugarcane molasses mixed with 500 ml PG from 7 days pre-partum to 30 days post-partum, respectively. Experimental results indicated that the oral drench PG had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI). The milk yield of the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05), whereas milk fat content, milk protein and somatic cell counts (SCC) were not significantly different between groups. Concentration of plasma glucose in the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). Conversely, the concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the PG group were lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). Concentrations of insulin and ketone bodies were not significantly difference between groups. Body condition score (BCS) in the PG group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). In reproductive performance there was no difference between groups. The experimental results indicate that supplementation of PG during the transition period of dairy cows can supply energy rapidly, resulting in reduced catabolism of body tissue and increased milk yield.
Dairy Cows;Propylene Glycol;Milk Production;Serum Metabolites;
 Cited by
Effect of postpartum propylene glycol allocation to over-conditioned Holstein cows on concentrations of milk metabolites, Journal of Dairy Research, 2016, 83, 02, 156  crossref(new windwow)
Barllard, C. S., P. Mandebvu, C. J. Sniffen, S. M. Emanuele and M. P. Carter. 2001. Effect of feeding an energy supplement to dairy cows pre- and postpartum on intake, milk yield, and incidence of ketosis. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 93:55-69 crossref(new window)

Britt, J. H. 1992. Impact of early postpartum metabolism on follicular development and fertility. New concepts in the interactions of nutrition and reproduction. In: Bovine proceedings. p. 39

Butler, W. R. and R. D. Smith. 1989. Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:767-783 crossref(new window)

Caldeira, R. M., A. T. Belo, C. C. Santos, M. I. Vazques and A. V. Portugal. 2007a. The effect of body condition score on blood metabolites and hormonal profiles in ewes. Small Rumin. Res. 68:233-241 crossref(new window)

Caldeira, R. M., A. T. Belo, C. C. Santos, M. I. Vazques and A. V. Portugal. 2007b. The effect of long-term feed restriction and over-nutrition on body condition score, blood metabolites and hormonal profiles in ewes. Small Rumin. Res. 68:242-255 crossref(new window)

Chimonyo, M., N. T. Kusina, H. Hamudikuwanda and I. Ncube. 2002. Changes in stress-related plasma metablite concentrations in working Mashona cows on dietary supplementation. Livestock Prod. Sci. 73:165-173 crossref(new window)

Chromy, V., J. Gergel and J. Voznicek. 1977. Assay of serum free fatty acids by extraction-photometric procedures. Clin. Chemica Acta 80:327-332 crossref(new window)

Christensen, J. O., R. R. Grummer, F. E. Rasmussen and S. J. Bertics. 1997. Effect of method of delivery of propyleneglycol on plasma metabolites of feed-restricted cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 80:563-568 crossref(new window)

Clapperton, J. L. and J. W. Czerkawski. 1972. Metabolism of propane-1:2-diol infused into the rumen of sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 27: 553-560 crossref(new window)

Cozzi, G., P. Berzaghi, F. Gottordo, G. Gabai and I. Andrighetto. 1996. Effects of feeding propylene glycol to mid-lactating dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 64:43-51 crossref(new window)

Curtis, C. R., H. N. Erb, C. J. Sniffen, R. D. Smith and D. S. Kronfeld. 1985. Path analysis of dry period nutrition, postpartum metabolic and reproductive disorders, and mastitis in Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 68:2347-2360 crossref(new window)

Dhiman, T. R., C. Cadorniga and L. D. Satter. 1993. Protein and energy supplementation of high alfalfa silage diets during early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1945-1959 crossref(new window)

Domecq, J. J., A. L. Skidmore, J. W. Lloyd and J. B. Kaneene. 1997. Relationship between body condition scores and conception at first artificial insemination in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 60:113-120 crossref(new window)

Emery, R. S., R. E. Brown and A. L. Black. 1967. Metabolism of dl-1,2-propanediol-2-14C in a lactating cow. J. Nutr. 92:348-356

Formigoni, A., M. Cornil, A. Prandi, A. Mordenti, A. Rossi, D. Portetelle and R. Renaville. 1996. Effect of propylene glycol supplementation around parturition on milk yield, reproduction performance and some hormonal and metabolic characteristics in dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 63:11-24 crossref(new window)

Gillund, P., O. Reksen, Y. T. Grohn and K. Karlberg. 2001. Body condition related to ketosis and reproductive performance in Norwegian dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1390-1396 crossref(new window)

Girschewski, V. H., J. Voigt and B. Piatkowski. 1977. Effect of high-carbohydrate diet in the form of sugar beet on glucose and ketone body levels in the blood serum of highly pregnant and freshly lactating cows. Arch Tierernahr. 27:731-735 crossref(new window)

Goff, J. P. and R. L. Horst. 1997. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationship to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1260-1268 crossref(new window)

Grant, R. J. and J. L. Albright. 1995. Feeding behavior and management factors during the transition period in dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2791-2803

Grummer, R. R. 1995. Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the transition dairy cow. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2820-2833

Grummer, R. R., J. C. Winkler, S. J. Bertics and V. A. Studer. 1994. Effect of propylene glycol dosage during feed restriction on metabolites in blood of prepartum Holstein heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 77:3618-3623 crossref(new window)

Hoedemaker, M., D. Prange, H. Zerbe, J. Frank, A. Daxenberger and H. H. D. Meyer. 2004. Peripartal propylene glycol supplementation and metabolism, animal health, fertility, and production in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2136-2145 crossref(new window)

Hutjens, M. F. 1996. Practical approaches to feeding the high producing cow. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:199-206 crossref(new window)

Juchem, S. O., F. A. P. Santos, H. Imaizumi, A. V. Pires and E. C. Barnabe. 2004. Production and blood parameters of Holstein cows treated prepartum with sodium momensin or propylene glycol. J. Dairy. Sci. 87:680-689 crossref(new window)

Kim, I. H. and G. H. Suh. 2003. Effect of the amount of body condition loss from the dry to near calving periods on the subsequent body condition change, occurrence of postpartum diseases, metabolic parameters and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. Theriogenol. 60:1445-1456 crossref(new window)

Kristensen, N. B., A. Danfaer, B. A. Rojen, B. M. L. Raun, M. R. Weisbjerg and T. Hvelplund. 2002. Metabolism of propionate and 1,2-propanediol absorbed from the washed reticulorumen of lactating cows. J. Anim. Sci. 80:2168-2175

Lucci, C. S., L. F. Fonseca, P. H. M. Rodrigues, M. V. Santos and A. P. Lima. 1998. Supplementation of propylene glycol to dairy cows in periparturient period: effects on body condition score, milk yield and first estrus postpartum. J. Dairy Sci. 81 (Suppl. 1):321(Abstr)

Markusfeld, O., N. Galon and E. Ezra. 1997. Body condition score, health, yield and fertility in dairy cows. Vet Res. 141:67-72 crossref(new window)

Miyoshi, S., J. L. Pate and D. L. Palmquist. 2001. Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 68:29-43 crossref(new window)

Nielsen, N. I. and K. L. Ingvartsen. 2004. Propylene glycol for dairy cows A review of the metabolism of propylene glycol and its effects on physiological parameters, feed intake, milk production and risk of ketosis. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 115:191-213 crossref(new window)

National Research Council. 1989. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. National Academy Press. Washington, DC

Pickett, M. M., M. S. Piepenbrink and T. R. Overton. 2003. Effects of propylene glycol or fat drench on plasma metabolites, liver composition and production of dairy cows during the periparturient period. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2113-2121 crossref(new window)

Reid, R. L. 1960. The determination of ketone bodies in blood. Analyste. 85:265-271 crossref(new window)

Robinson, P. H. 1997. Effect of yeast culture (Sacchromyces cerevisiae) on adaptation of cows to diets postpartum. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1119-1125 crossref(new window)

Robinson, P. H. and J. E. Garrett. 1999. Effect of yeast culture on adaptation of cows to postpartum diets and on lactational performance. J. Anim. Sci. 77:988-999

Salem, H. B., I. B. Salem and M. S. B. Said. 2005. Effect of the level and frequency of PEG supply on intake, digestion, biochemical and clinical parameters by goats given kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.)-based diets. Small Rumin. Res. 56:127-137 crossref(new window)

Statistical Analysis System Institute. 1998. SAS/STAT User's guide, Version 6.06, 4th ed. Cary, NC

Shingfield, K. J., S. Jaakkola and P. Huhtanen. 2002. Effect of forage conservation method, concentrate level and propylene glycol on diet digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolite concentrations and nutrient utilisation of dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 97:1-21 crossref(new window)

Wildman, E. E., G. M. Jones, P. E. Wagner and R. L. Bowman. 1982. A dairy cow body condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production characteristics. J. Dairy Sci. 65:495-501 crossref(new window)