JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Dietary Arachidonic Acid (20:4n-6) Levels on Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Eel, Anguilla japonica
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Dietary Arachidonic Acid (20:4n-6) Levels on Growth Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Eel, Anguilla japonica
Bae, Jun-Young; Kim, Dae-Jung; Yoo, Kwang-Yeol; Kim, Sun-Gyu; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Bai, Sungchul C.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) levels on growth performance and body composition in juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica. Six semi-purified experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and iso-caloric containing 55.0% crude protein and 15% crude lipid (18.3 kJ of available energy ). Six different levels of AA were added to the basal diet, with 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 or 1.2% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively (). After a conditioning period, fish initially averaging 270.5 g (meanSD) were randomly distributed into each aquarium as triplicate groups of 20 fish each. One of six experimental diets was fed on a DM basis to fish in three randomly selected aquaria at a rate of 2-3% of total body weight twice a day. At the end of the 12-week feeding trial, weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish fed and diets were significantly higher than of fish fed diets (p<0.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed the diet was significantly higher than of fish fed diets (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in WG, SGR and FE among fish fed diets (p>0.05). Whole body AA deposition of fish fed the diet was significantly higher than for the other diets (p<0.05). Broken-line model analysis on the basis of WG and SGR indicated that the dietary AA requirement could be greater than 0.69% but less than 0.71% of the diet in juvenile eel. The growth-promoting activity of AA observed in the present study provides strong support for the contention that dietary AA is essential for juvenile eel.
 Keywords
Arachidonic Acid (AA);AA requirement;Essential Fatty Acids;Eel;Anguilla japonica;Growth Performance;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis. 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Virginia, USA

2.
Bae, J. Y. 2003. Studies on requirements of optimum dietary essential fatty acids in eel, Anguilla japonica. Ms. Thesis, Department of Fisheries Biology, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea

3.
Bae, J. Y., K. M. Han, G. J. Park and S. C. Bai. 2004. Studies of requirements of optimum dietary essential fatty acids in juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica. J. Aquacult. 17(4):275-281

4.
Bae, J. Y., K. M. Han, J. H. Lee, S. E. Kim, J. Y. Lee and S. C. Bai. 2008. Effects of dietary quartz porphyry and feed stimulants, BAISM supplementation on growth performance and disease resistance of juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica. J. Aquacult. 21(1):26-33

5.
Bell, J. G., J. D. Castell, D. R. Tocher, F. M. MacDonald and J. R. Sargent. 1995. Effects of different dietary arachidonic acid:docosahexaenoic acid ratios on phospholipid fatty acid compositions and prostaglandin production in juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 14:139-151 crossref(new window)

6.
Bell, J. G. and J. R. Sargent. 2003. Arachidonic acid in aquaculture feeds: current status and future opportunities. Aquaculture 218:491-499 crossref(new window)

7.
Bell, J. G., D. R. Tocher and J. R. Sargent. 1994. Effects of supplementation with 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 on the production of the prostaglandins E and F of the 1-, 2- and 3-series in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus brain astroglial cells in primary culture. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1211: 335-342

8.
Bell, J. G., D. R. Tocher, B. M. Farndale, D. I. Cox, R. W. McKinney and J. R. Sargent. 1997. The effect of dietary lipid on polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar undergoing parr - smolt transformation. Lipids 32: 515-525 crossref(new window)

9.
Bell, M. V. and J. R. Dick. 1990. Molecular species composition of phosphatidylinositol from brain, retina, liver and muscle of cod, Gadus morhua. Lipids 25:691-694 crossref(new window)

10.
Bell, M. V., C. M. F. Simpson and J. R. Sargent. 1983. n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the phosphoglycerides of saltsecreting epithelia from two marine fish species. Lipids 18: 720-725 crossref(new window)

11.
Bell, M. V., R. J., Henderson and J. R. Sargent. 1986. The role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 4:711-719

12.
Bessonart, M., M. S. Izquierdo, M. Salhi, C. M. Hernandez-Cruz, M. M. Gonzalez, H. Fernandez-Palacios. 1999. Effect of dietary arachidonic acid levels on growth and fatty acid composition of gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata larvae. Aquaculture 179:265-275 crossref(new window)

13.
Castell, J. D., R. O. Sinnhuber, J. H. Wales and D. J. Lee. 1972a. Essential fatty acids in the diet of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, growth, feed conversion and some gross deficiency symptoms. J. Nutr. 102:77-86

14.
Castell, J. D., R. O. Sinnhuber, D. J. Lee and J. H. Wales. 1972b. Essential fatty acids in the diet of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, physiological symptoms of EFA deficiency. J. Nutr. 102:87-92 crossref(new window)

15.
Castell, J. D., J. G. Bell, D. R. Tocher and J. R. Sargent. 1994. Effects of purified diets containing different combinations of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid on survival, growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. Aquaculture 128:315-333 crossref(new window)

16.
FAO. 2008. Food and Agriculture Organization. Fishery information, data and statistics website. Aquaculture production, 1984-2007

17.
Folch, J., M. Lees and G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509

18.
Furuita, H., T. Takeuchi and K. Uematsu. 1998. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on growth, survival and brain development of larval Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 161:269-279 crossref(new window)

19.
Furuita, H., H. Tanaka, T. Yamamoto, N. Suzuki and T. Takeuchi. 2002. Effect of high levels of n-3 HUFA in broodstock diet on egg quality and egg fatty acid composition of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 210:323-333 crossref(new window)

20.
Furuita, H., T. Yamamoto, T. Shima, N. Suzuki and T. Takeuchi. 2003. Effect of arachidonic acid levels in broodstock diet on larval and egg quality of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 220:725-735 crossref(new window)

21.
Henderson, R. J. and J. R. Sargent. 1985. Fatty acid metabolism in fish. In: Nutrition and Feeding in Fish (Ed. C. B. Cowey, A. M. Mackie and J. G. Bell). Academic Press, London. pp. 349-364

22.
Henderson, R. J. and D. E. Tocher. 1987. The lipid composition and biochemistry of freshwater fish. Prog. Lipid Res. 26:281-347 crossref(new window)

23.
Henderson, R. J., M. V. Bell and J. R. Sargent. 1985. The conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prosta-glandins by tissue homogenates of the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 85:93-99 crossref(new window)

24.
Ishizaki, Y., T. Takeuchi, T. Watanabe, M. Arimoto and K. Shimizu. 1998. A preliminary experiment of the effect of Artemia enriched with arachidonic acid on survival and growth of yellowtail. Fish. Sci. 64:295-299

25.
Kosutarak, P., A. Kanazawa, S. Teshima and S. Koshio. 1995. Interactions of L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate-Mg and n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on Japanese flounder juveniles. Fish. Sci. 61: 860-866

26.
Koven, W., Y. Barr, S. Lutzky, I. Ben-Atia, R. Weiss, M. Harel, P. Behrens and A. Tandler, 2001. The effect of dietary arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) on growth, survival and resistance to handling stress in gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata larvae. Aquaculture 193:107-122 crossref(new window)

27.
Lee, S. M., J. H. Lee and K. D. Kim. 2003. Effect of dietary essential fatty acids on growth, body composition and blood chemistry of juvenile starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus. Aquaculture 225:269-281 crossref(new window)

28.
Mustafa, T. and K. C. Srivastava. 1989. Prostaglandins (eicosanoids) and their role in ectothermic organisms. Adv. Comp. Environ. Physiol. 5:157-207

29.
Robbins, K. R., H. W. Norton and D. H. Baker. 1979. Estimation of nutrient requirements from growth data. J. Nutr. 109:1710-1714

30.
Sargent, J. R., R. J. Henderson and D. R. Tocher. 1989. The lipids. In: Fish Nutrition, 2nd Ed. (Ed. J. E. Halver), Academic Press, New York, pp. 153-218

31.
Sargent, J. R., J. G. Bell, M. V. Bell, R. J. Henderson and D. R. Tocher. 1995. Requirement criteria for essential fatty acids. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 11:183-198 crossref(new window)

32.
Sargent, J. R., J. G. Bell, L. A. McEvoy, D. Tocher and A. Estevez. 1999. Recent developments in the essential fatty acid nutrition of fish. Aquaculture 177:191-199 crossref(new window)

33.
Stickney, R. R. and J. W. Andrews. 1972. Effects of dietary lipids on growth, food conversion, lipid and fatty acid composition of channel catfish. J. Nutr. 102:249-258 crossref(new window)

34.
Takeuchi, T., S. Arai, T. Watanabe and Y. Shimma. 1980. Requirement of eel, Anguilla japonica for essential fatty acids. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 46:345-353

35.
Teshima, S. 1985. Lipids. In: Fish Nutrition and Diets (Ed. Y. Yone). Koseisha Koseikaku, Tokyo. pp. 20-30

36.
Tocher, D. R., J. G. Bell, J. R. Dick, R. J. Henderson, F. McGhee, D. Mitchell and P. C. Morris. 2000. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar undergoing parrsmolt transformation and the effects of dietary linseed and rapeseed oils. Fish Phys. Biochem. 23:59-73 crossref(new window)

37.
Wang, X., K. W. Kim and S. C. Bai. 2003. Comparison of Lascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Ca with L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na/Ca on growth and tissue ascorbic acid concentrations in Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Aquaculture 225:387-395 crossref(new window)

38.
Watanabe, T., C. Ogino, Y. Koshiishi and T. Matsunaga. 1974. Requirement of rainbow trout for essential fatty acids. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 40:493-499

39.
Zheng, F., T. Takeuchi, K. Yoseda, M. Kobayashi, J. Hirokawa and T. Watanabe. 1996. Requirement of larval cod for arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid using by their enriched Artemia nauplii. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 62:669-676