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The Effects of Different Copper (Inorganic and Organic) and Energy (Tallow and Glycerol) Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fecal Excretion Profiles in Growing Pigs
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 Title & Authors
The Effects of Different Copper (Inorganic and Organic) and Energy (Tallow and Glycerol) Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Fecal Excretion Profiles in Growing Pigs
Huang, Y.; Yoo, J.S.; Kim, H.J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, Y.J.; Cho, J.H.; Kim, I.H.;
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This study was conducted to determine the effects of different copper (inorganic and organic) and energy (tallow and glycerol) sources on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gas emission, diarrhea incidence, and fecal copper concentration in growing pigs by using a 22 factorial design. In this trial, 96 pigs (63 d of age) were employed, with an average initial weight of 28.361.14 kg. The dietary treatments were i) basal diet with 134 ppm copper (Korea recommendation) as +tallow; ii) basal diet with 134 ppm Cu as +glycerol; iii) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+tallow; and iv) basal diet with 134 ppm copper as CuMet+ glycerol. Throughout the entire experimental period, no differences were noted among treatment groups with regard to the magnitude of improvement in ADG (average daily gain), ADFI (average daily feed intake) and G/F (gain:feed) ratios. The nitrogen (N) digestibility of pigs fed on diets containing organic copper was improved as compared with that observed in pigs fed on diets containing inorganic copper (p<0.05). An interaction of copperenergy was observed in the context of both nitrogen (p<0.05) and energy (p<0.01) digestibility. Ammonia emissions were significantly lower in the organic copper-added treatment groups than in the inorganic copperadded treatment groups (p<0.05). Mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide emissions were reduced via the addition of glycerol (p<0.05). No significant effects of copper or energy source, or their interaction, were observed in reference to diarrhea appearance and incidence throughout the entirety of the experimental period. The copper concentration in the feces was significantly lower in the organic copper source treatment group than was observed in the inorganic copper source treatment group (p<0.05). The results of this experiment show that organic copper substituted for inorganic copper in the diet results in a decreased fecal copper excretion, but exerts no effect on performance. The different energy (tallow and glycerol) sources interact with different copper sources and thus influence nutrient digestibility. Glycerol supplementation may reduce the concentrations of odorous sulfuric compounds with different Cu sources.
Growing Pig;Copper;Energy Source;Digestibility;Fecal Excretion;
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