Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Utilization of Rice Straw and Different Treatments to Improve Its Feed Value for Ruminants: A Review
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Utilization of Rice Straw and Different Treatments to Improve Its Feed Value for Ruminants: A Review
Sarnklong, C.; Cone, J.W.; Pellikaan, W.; Hendriks, W.H.;
  PDF(new window)
This paper gives an overview of the availability, nutritive quality, and possible strategies to improve the utilization of rice straw as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Approximately 80% of the rice in the world is grown by small-scale farmers in developing countries, including South East Asia. The large amount of rice straw as a by-product of the rice production is mainly used as a source of feed for ruminant livestock. Rice straw is rich in polysaccharides and has a high lignin and silica content, limiting voluntary intake and reducing degradability by ruminal microorganisms. Several methods to improve the utilization of rice straw by ruminants have been investigated in the past. However, some physical treatments are not practical because of the requirement for machinery or treatments are not economical feasible for the farmers. Chemical treatments, such as NaOH, or urea, currently seem to be more practical for onfarm use. Alternative treatments to improve the nutritive value of rice straw are the use of ligninolytic fungi (white-rot fungi), with their extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, or specific enzymes degrading cellulose and/or hemicellulose. The use of fungi or enzyme treatments is expected to be a more practical and environmental-friendly approach for enhancing the nutritive value of rice straw and can be costeffective in the future. Using fungi and enzymes might be combined with the more classical chemical or physical treatments. However, available data on using fungi and enzymes for improving the quality of rice straw are relatively scarce.
Rice Straw;Characteristics;Utilization;Fungi;Feed;Ruminant;
 Cited by
친환경 청보리, 이탈리안 라이그라스, 볏짚사일리지의 In vitro 반추위 발효성상 비교연구,;오성진;이아름;채정일;최창원;최낙진;

한국유기농업학회지, 2012. vol.20. 2, pp.221-230
Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation,;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2015. vol.28. 3, pp.343-350 crossref(new window)
Effects of Moisture Content and Chopping Treatment of Rice Straw Silage on Particle Size and in situ Digestibility of Total Mixed Ration in Dairy Cows,;;;;

한국폐기물자원순환학회지, 2015. vol.32. 7, pp.693-704 crossref(new window)
Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep,;;;;

아세아태평양축산학회지, 2016. vol.29. 4, pp.523-529 crossref(new window)
Negative effects of tropospheric ozone on the feed value of rice straw are mitigated by an ozone tolerance QTL, Global Change Biology, 2011, 17, 7, 2319  crossref(new windwow)
, Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 2011, 91, 4, 695  crossref(new windwow)
Lignin: Characterization of a Multifaceted Crop Component, The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 2013, 1537-744X, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Dry chemical processing and ensiling of rice straw to improve its quality for use as ruminant feed, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2013, 45, 5, 1215  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of Stylosanthes guianensis supplementation on intake and nitrogen metabolism of Bos indicus cattle offered a basal diet of mixed rice straw and tropical grass, Animal Production Science, 2013, 53, 5, 453  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2013, 98, 1, 100  crossref(new windwow)
Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and ruminal fermentation activities in sheep-fed peanut hulls treated with Trichoderma viride or urea, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2014, 46, 1, 221  crossref(new windwow)
Interaction of rumen bacteria as assumed by colonization patterns on untreated and alkali-treated rice straw, Animal Science Journal, 2014, 85, 5, 524  crossref(new windwow)
Subcutaneous Adipose Fatty Acid Profiles and Related Rumen Bacterial Populations of Steers Fed Red Clover or Grass Hay Diets Containing Flax or Sunflower-Seed, PLoS ONE, 2014, 9, 8, e104167  crossref(new windwow)
Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2014, 99, 3, 449  crossref(new windwow)
Improving Nutritional Quality of Cocoa Pod (Theobroma cacao) through Chemical and Biological Treatments for Ruminant Feeding: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2015, 28, 3, 343  crossref(new windwow)
Improving the feeding value of straws with Pleurotus ostreatus, Animal Production Science, 2015, 55, 2, 241  crossref(new windwow)
Production of cellulases from Humicola fuscoatra MTCC 1409: Role of enzymes in paddy straw digestion, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2015, 9, 9, 631  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Rice Straw Supplemented with Urea and Molasses on Intermediary Metabolism of Plasma Glucose and Leucine in Sheep, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2016, 29, 4, 523  crossref(new windwow)
Nutritional value of baled rice straw for ruminant feed, Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 2016, 45, 7, 392  crossref(new windwow)
Milk yield response of cows supplemented with sorghum stover and Tithonia diversifolia leaf hay diets during the dry season in northern Uganda, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2016, 48, 7, 1463  crossref(new windwow)
The effect of particle size and amount of inoculum on fungal treatment of wheat straw and wood chips, Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 2016, 7, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Selective ligninolysis of wheat straw and wood chips by the white-rot fungus Lentinula edodes and its influence on in vitro rumen degradability, Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 2016, 7, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Improving ruminal degradability and energetic values of bamboo shoot shell using chemical treatments, Animal Science Journal, 2016, 87, 7, 896  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of graded levels of liquid brewer's yeast on chemical composition and fermentation quality in cassava pulp and rice straw-based total mixed ration silage, Animal Science Journal, 2016, 88, 4, 618  crossref(new windwow)
Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage, Animal Science Journal, 2016, 88, 4, 625  crossref(new windwow)
Integrating Characterization of Smallholders’ Feeding Practices with On-Farm Feeding Trials to Improve Utilization of Crop Residues on Smallholder Farms, Advances in Agriculture, 2017, 2017, 2314-7539, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of fungal (Lentinussajor-caju) treated oil palm frond on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing goats, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2017, 30, 6, 811  crossref(new windwow)
Yeast mixture of liquid beer and cassava pulp with rice straw for the growth of dairy heifers, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 2017, 49, 3, 491  crossref(new windwow)
(L.) Walp.) stover treated with white-rot fungi as rabbit feed, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2017, 97, 13, 4386  crossref(new windwow)
Simultaneous determination of sulfoxaflor and its metabolites, X11719474 and X11721061, in brown rice and rice straw after field application using LC-MS/MS, International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 2017, 97, 2, 99  crossref(new windwow)
treated wheat straw under anaerobic conditions, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2017, 00225142  crossref(new windwow)
Harvesting nutrients from source-separated urine using powdered rice straw, Environmental Technology, 2017, 1479-487X, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Improved Treatment and Utilization of Rice Straw by Coprinopsis cinerea, Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2017, 1559-0291  crossref(new windwow)
Nutritive utilization of Moringa oleifera tree stalks treated with fungi and yeast to replace clover hay in growing lambs, Agroforestry Systems, 2017, 1572-9680  crossref(new windwow)
Abou-EL-Enin, O. H., J. G. Fadel and D. J. Mackill. 1999. Differences in chemical composition and fibre digestion of rice straw with, without, anhydrous ammonia from 53 rice varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 79:129-136 crossref(new window)

Agbagla-Dohnani, A., P. Noziere, B. Gaillard-Martinie, M. Puard and M. Doreau. 2003. Effect of silica content on rice straw ruminal degradation. J. Anim. Sci. 140:183-192 crossref(new window)

Akter, Y., M. A. Akbar, M. Shahjalal and T. U. Ahmed. 2004. Effect of urea molasses multi-nutrient blocks supplementation of dairy cows fed rice straw and green grasses on milk yield, composition, live weight gain of cows and calves and feed intake. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 7(9):1523-1525 crossref(new window)

Arieli, A. 1997. Whole cottonseed in dairy cattle feeding: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 72:97-110 crossref(new window)

Arora, D. S. and P. K. Gill. 2005. Production of ligninolytic enzymes by Phlebia floridensis. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 21:1021-1028 crossref(new window)

Arora, D. S., M. Chander and P. K. Gill. 2002. Involvement of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase in degradation and selective ligninolysis of wheat straw. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation 50:115-120 crossref(new window)

Bae, H. D., T. A. McAllister, E. G. Kokko, F. L. Leggett, L. J. Yanke, K. D. Jakober, J. K. Ha, H. T. Shin and K.-J. Cheng. 1997. Effect of silica on the colonization of rice straw by ruminal bacteria. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 65:165-181 crossref(new window)

Baile, C. A. and J. M. Forbes. 1974. Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiol. Rew. 54:160-214

Barrasa, J. M., S. Camarero, A. T. Martinez and K. Ruel. 1995. Ultrastructural aspects of wheat straw degradation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trametes versicolor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 43:766-770 crossref(new window)

Beauchemin, K. A., D. Colombatto and D. P. Morgavi. 2004. A rationale for the development of feed enzyme products for ruminants. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84:23-36 crossref(new window)

Beauchemin, K. A., L. M. Rode and V. J. H. Sewalt. 1995. Fibrolytic enzymes increase fiber digestibility and growth rate of steers fed dry forages. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:641-644 crossref(new window)

Berger, L. L., G. C. Fahey, L. D. Bourquin and E. C. Tilgeyer. 1994. Modification of forage quality after harvest. In: Forage Quality, Evaluation, and Utilisation (Ed. G. C. Fahey). American Society of Agronomy, Inc, Madison, USA. pp. 922-966

Calzado, J. F. and C. Rolz. 1990. Estimation of the growth rate of Pleurotus on stocked straw. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 69:70-71 crossref(new window)

Chaudhry, A. S. 1998. Nutrient composition, digestion and rumen fermentation in sheep of wheat straw treated with calcium oxide, sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74:315-328 crossref(new window)

Chaudhry, A. S. and E. L. Miller. 1996. The effect of sodium hydroxide and alkaline hydrogen peroxide on chemical composition of wheat straw and voluntary intake, growth and digesta kinetics in store lambs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 60:69-86 crossref(new window)

Chen, J., S. L. Fales, G. A. Varga and D. J. Royse. 1996. Biodegradability of free monomeric cell-wall-bound phenolic acids in maize stover by two strains of white-rot fungi. J. Sci. Food Agric. 71:145-150 crossref(new window)

Chenost, M. and C. Kayouli. 1997. Roughage Utilisation in Warm Climates. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper 135, Rome

Colombatto, D., G. Hervas, W. Z. Yang and K. A. Beauchemin. 2003a. Effects of enzymes supplementation of a total mixed ration on microbial fermentation in continous culture, maintained at high and low pH. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2617-2627

Colombatto, D., D. P. Morgavi, A. F. Furtado and K. A. Beauchemin. 2003b. Screening of exogenous enzymes for ruminant diets: relationship between biochemical characteristics and in vitro ruminal degradation. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2628-2638

Conrad, H. R. 1966. Symposium on factors influencing the voluntary intake of herbage by ruminants: Physiological and physical factors limiting feed intake. J. Anim. Sci. 25:227-235

Devendra, C. and D. Thomas. 2002. Crop-animal interactions in mixed farming systems in Asia. Agric. Syst. 71:27-40 crossref(new window)

Devendra, C. 1997. Crop residues for feeding animals in Asia:Technology development and adoption in crop/livestock systems. In: Crop Residuals in Sustainable Mixed Crop/livestock Farming System (Ed. C. Renard). CAB International; Wallingford, UK. pp. 241-267

Dias da Silva, A. A. 1993. Upgrading of low quality feeds by means of urinary urea. In: Urine - a Wasted, Renewable Natural Resources (Ed. F. Sundstøl and E. Owen). NORAGRIC Occasional Papers Series C, Development and Environment Vol. 12:42-49

Doyle, P. T., C. Devendra and G. R. Pearce. 1986. Rice straw as a feed for ruminants. IDP, Canberra, Australia

Eriksson, K-EL, R. A. Blanchette and P. Ander. 1990. Microbial and enzymatic degradation of wood and wood components. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York

Eun, J.-S., K. A. Beauchemin, S.-H. Hong and M. W. Bauer. 2006. Exogenous enzymes added to untreated or ammoniated rice straw: Effects on in vitro fermentation characteristics and degradability. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 131:86-101

Fadel Elseed, A. M. A. 2005. Effect of supplemental protein feeding frequency on ruminal chracteristics and microbial N production in sheep fed treated rice straw. Small Rumin. Res. 57:11-17 crossref(new window)

Fadel Elseed, A. M. A., J. Sekine, M. Hishinuma and K. Hamana. 2003. Effects of ammonia, urea plus calcium hydroxide and animal urine treatments on chemical composition and in sacco degradability of rice straw. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:368-373

Fazaeli, H., A. Azizi and M. Amile. 2006. Nutritive value index of treated wheat straw with Pleurotus fungi fed to sheep. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 9(13):2444-2449 crossref(new window)

Giraldo, L. A., M. L. Tejido, M. J. Ranilla and M. D. Carro. 2007. Effects of exogenous cellulase supplementation on microbial growth and ruminal fermentation of a high-forage diet in Rusitec fermenters. J. Anim. Sci. 85:1962-1970 crossref(new window)

Hadjipanayiotou, M. 1984. Effect of level and type of alkali on the digestibility in vitro of ensiled, chopped barley straw. Agric. Wastes 10:187-194 crossref(new window)

Hoover, W. H. 1986. Chemical factors involved in ruminal fiber digestion. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2755-2766 crossref(new window)

Howard, R. L., E. Abotsi, E. L. Jansen and S. Howard. 2003. Lignocellulose biotechnology: Issues of bioconversion and enzyme production. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2:602-619

Ibrahim, M. N. M. 1983. Physical, chemical, physico-chemical and biological treatments of crop residues. In: The Utilization of Fibrous Agricultural Residues (Ed. G. R. Pearce). Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Research for Development Seminar three, Los Banos, Philippines, 18-23 May 1981. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia. pp. 53-68

Iiyama, K., T. B. T. Lam and B. A. Stone. 1990. Phenolic acid bridges between polysaccharides and lignin in wheat internodes. Phytochem. 29:733-737 crossref(new window)

Jackson, M. G. 1977. Review article: The alkali treatment of straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2:105-130 crossref(new window)

Jafari, A., M. A. Edriss, M. Alikhani and G. Emtiazi. 2005. Effects of treated wheat straw with exogenous fibre-degrading enzymes on wool characteristics of ewe lambs. Pak. J. Nutr. 4:321-326 crossref(new window)

Jalc, D. 2002. Straw enrichment for fodder production by fungi. In: The Mycota XI Agricultural Applications (Ed. F. Kempken). ${\copyright}$ Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 19-38

Karunanadaa, K. and G. A. Varga. 1996a. Colinization of rice straw by white-rot fungi (Cyathus stercoreus): Effect on ruminal fermentation pattern, nitrogen metabolism, and fiber utilization during continuous culture. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 61:1-16 crossref(new window)

Karunanadaa, K. and G. A. Varga. 1996b. Colinization of rice straw by white-rot fungi: cell eall monosaccharides, phenolic acids, ruminal fermentation characteristics and digestibility of cell wall fiber components in vitro. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63:273-288 crossref(new window)

Karunanandaa, K., G. A. Varga, D. E. Akin, L. L. Rigsby and D. J. Royse. 1995. Botanical fractions of rice straw colonized by white-rot fungi: Changes in chemical composition and structure. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 55:179-199 crossref(new window)

Karunanandaa, K., S. L. Fales, G. A. Varga and D. J. Royse. 1992. Chemical composition and biodegradability of crop residues colonized by white rot fungi. J. Sci. Food Agric. 60:105-112 crossref(new window)

Kirk, T. K. and R. L. Farrell. 1987. Enzymatic 'combustion': The microbial degradation of lignin. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 41:465-505 crossref(new window)

Kluczek-Turpeinen, B., P. Maijala, M. Hofrichter and A. Hatakka. 2007. Degradation and enzymatic activties of three Paecilomyces inflatus strains grown on diverse lignocellulosic substrates. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 59:283-291 crossref(new window)

Lam, T. B. T., K. Kadoya and K. Iiyama. 2001. Bonding of hydroxycinnamic acids to lignin: ferulic and p-coumaric acids are predominantly linked at the benzyl position of lignin, not the b-position, in grass cell walls. Phytochem. 57:987-992 crossref(new window)

Lechner, B. E. and V. L. Papinutti. 2006. Production of lignocellulosic enzymes during growth and fruiting of the edible fungus Lentinus tigrinus on wheat straw. Process Biochem. 41:594-598 crossref(new window)

Liu, J. X. and E. R. Ørskov. 2000. Cellulase treatment of untreated and steam pre-treated rice straw-effect on in vitro fermentation characteristics. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 88:189-200 crossref(new window)

Liu, J. X., E. R. Ørskov and X. B. Chen. 1999. Optimization of steam treatment as a method for upgrading rice straw as feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 76:345-357 crossref(new window)

Liu, J. X., A. Susenbeth and K. H. Südekum. 2002. In vitro gas production measurements to evaluate interactions between untreated and chemically treated rice straws, grass hay, and mulberry leaves. J. Anim. Sci. 80:517-524

NARC newsletter (rice special issue), May 2004

Novotny, C., K. Svobodova, P. Erbanova, T. Cajthaml, A. Kasinath, E. Lang and V. Sasek. 2004. Ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation: Extracellular enzyme production and degradation rate. Soil Biol. Biochem. 36:1545-1551 crossref(new window)

Phang, O. C. and J. Vadiveloo. 1992. Effects of varieties, botanical fractions and supplements of palm oil by-products on the feeding value of rice straw in goats. Small Rumin. Res. 6:295-301 crossref(new window)

Pradhan, R., H. Tobioka and I. Tasaki. 1997. Effect of moisture content and different levels of additives on chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 68:273-284

Prasad, R. D. D., M. R. Reddy and G. V. N. Reddy. 1998. Effect of feeding baled and stacked urea treated rice straw on the performance of crossbred cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 73:347-352 crossref(new window)

Rai, S. N. and V. D. Mudgal. 1996. Effect of alkali and (or) steam treatment of wheat straw or cellulase augmentd concentrate mixture on rumen fermentation on goats. Small Rumin. Res. 19:219-225 crossref(new window)

Reddy, D. V. 1996. Evaluation of rice straw-poultry droppings based rations supplemented with graded levels of rice bran in fistulated buffaloes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 58:227-237 crossref(new window)

Rezaeian, M., G. W. Beakes and A. S. Chaudhry. 2005. Relative fibrolytic activities of anaerobic rumen fungi on untreated and sodium hydroxide treated barley straw in in vitro culture. Anaerobe 11:163-175 crossref(new window)

Rodrigues, M. A. M., P. Pinto, R. M. F. Bezerra, A. A. Dias, C. V. M. Guedes, V. M. G. Gardoso, J. W. Cone, L. M. M. Ferreira, J. Colaco and C. A. Sequeira. 2008. Effect of enzyme extracts isolated from white-rot fungi on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141:326-338 crossref(new window)

Saadulah, M., M. Haque and F. Dolberg. 1981. Treatment of rice straw with lime. Trop. Anim. Prod. 6:116-120

Schiere, J. B. and M. N. M. Ibrahim. 1989. Feeding of ureaammonia treated rice straw: A compilation of miscellaneous reports produced by the Straw Utilization Project (Sri Lanka). Pudoc, Wageningen

Schubert, R. and G. Flachowsky. 1994. Investigations on nitrogen flow into and out of nylon bag after ruminal incubation and feeding of untreated or 15N horse urine treated wheat straw in small ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48:199-209 crossref(new window)

Selim, A. S. M., J. Pan, T. Suzuki, K. Ueda, Y. Kobayashi and K. Tanaka. 2002. Postprandial changes in particle associated ruminal bacteria in sheep fed ammoniated rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:227-287

Selim, A. S. M., J. Pan, T. Takano, T. Suzuki, S. Koike, Y. Kobayashi and K. Tanaka. 2004. Effect of ammonia treatment on physical strength of rice straw, distribution of straw particles and particle-associated bacteria in sheep rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 115:117-128 crossref(new window)

Shen, H. S., D. B. Ni and F. Sundstøl. 1998. Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 1. Physical and chemical measurements in straw and straw fractions. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 73:243-261 crossref(new window)

Shen, H. S., F. Sundstøl, E. R. Eng and L. O. Eik. 1999. Studies on untreated and urea-treated rice straw from three cultivation seasons: 3. Histological investigations by light and scanning electron microscopy. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 80:151-159 crossref(new window)

Sirohi, S. K. and S. N. Rai. 1995. Associative effect of lime plus urea treatment of paddy straw on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 65:1346-1351

Stensig, T., M. R. Weisbjerg, J. Madsen and T. Hvelplund. 1994. Estimation of voluntary feed intake from in sacco degradation and rate of passage of DM or NDF. Livest. Prod. Sci. 39:49-52 crossref(new window)

Sundstøl, F. and E. M. Coxworth. 1984. Ammonia treatment. In: Straw and Other Fibrous By-products as Feed (Ed. F. Sundstøl and E. Owen). Developments in Animal Veterinary Sciences, 14. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 196-247

Theander, O. and P. Aman. 1984. Anatomical and chemical characteristics. In: Straw and Other Fibrous By-products as Feed. (Ed. F. Sundst$\phi$l and E. Own). Developments in Animal Veterinary Sciences, 14. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 45-78

Uden, P. 1988. The effect of grinding and pelleting hay on digestibility, fermentation rate, digesta passage and rumen and faecal particle size in cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:145-157 crossref(new window)

Vadiveloo, J. 1992. Varietal differences in the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of rice straw. J. Agric. Sci. 119:27-33 crossref(new window)

Vadiveloo, J. 1995. Factors contributing to varietal differences in the nutritive value of rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 54:45-53 crossref(new window)

Vadiveloo, J. 2000. Nutritional properties of the leaf and stem of rice straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 83:57-65 crossref(new window)

Vadiveloo, J. 2003. The effect of agronomic improvement and urea treatment on the nutritional value of Malaysian rice straw varieties. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 108:33-146 crossref(new window)

Van Soest, P. J. 2006. Review: rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve quality. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 130:137-171 crossref(new window)

Vu, D. D., L. X. Cuong, C. A. Dung and P. H. Hai. 1999. Use of urea-molasses-multinutrient block and urea-treated rice straw for improving dairy cattle productivity in Vietnam. Prev. Vet. Med. 38:187-193 crossref(new window)

Wanapat, M., A. Petlum and O. Pimpa. 1999. Strategic supplementation with a high quality feed block on roughage intake, milk yield and composition and economic return in lactating dairy cows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 12:901-903

Wanapat, M., S. Polyrach, K. Boonnop, C. Mapato and A. Cherdthong. 2009. Effect of treating rice straw with urea and calcium hydroxide upon intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk yield of dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 125:238-243 crossref(new window)

Wanapat, M., K. Sommart and K. Saardrak. 1996. Cottonseed meal supplementation of dairy cattle fed rice straw. Livestock Research for Rural Development. 8(3) ( ag/AGa/ AGAP- /FRG/FEEDback/lrrd/lrrd8/3/metha83.htm)

Wang, Y., B. M. Spratling, D. R. ZoBell, R. D. Wiedmeier and T. A. McAllister. 2004. Effect of alkali pretreatment of wheat straw on the efficacy of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes. J. Anim. Sci. 82:198-208

Warly, L., T. Matsui, T. Harumoto and T. Fujihara. 1992. Study on the utilization of rice straw by sheep: Part I. The effect of soybean meal supplementation on the eating and rumination behavior. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 5:695-698

Yamakava, M. and H. A. Okamnto. 1992. Effect of incubation with edible mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on voluntary intake and digestibility or rice bran by sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63:133-138

Yang, W. Z., K. A. Beauchemin and L. M. Rode. 2000. A comparison of methods of adding fibrolytic enzymes to lactating cow diets. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2512-2520 crossref(new window)

Zhu, S., Y. Wu, Z. Yu, J. Liao and Y. Zhang. 2005. Pretreatment by microwave/alkali of rice straw and its enzymic hydrolysis. Process Biochem. 40:3082-3086 crossref(new window)