AFRC. 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8DE, UK. 175.
Ali, S. M. K., M. A. Malek, K. Jahan and Q. Salamtullah. 1992. Deshio Khaddodrobber pushtiman (Nutritive value of indigenous food). 4th ed. Nutrition and Food Sci. Institute, Dhaka University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Ammerman, C. B. and R. D. Goodrich. 1983. Advances in mineral nutrition in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 57(Suppl. 2):519-533.
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Bach, A., S. Calsamiglia and M. D. Stern. 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 88(e Suppl 1):E9-21.
Bamdad, F., M. Kadivar and J. Keramat. 2006. Evaluation of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Iranian caraway in comparison with clove and BHT using model systems and vegetable oil. Intl. J. Food Sci. Technol. 41(Suppl. 1):20-27.
Braga, M. E., P. F. Leal, J. E. Carvalho and M. A. Meireles. 2003. Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts obtained using various techniques. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51(22):6604-6611.
Busquet, M., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret, P. W. Cardozo and C. Kamel. 2005. Effects of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil on rumen microbial fermentation in a dual flow continuous culture. J. Dairy Sci. 88(7):2508-2516.
Canbolat, O., C. O. Ozkan and A. Kamalak. 2007. Effects of NaOH treatment on condensed tannin contents and gas production kinetics of tree leaves (Special issue: Nutrition technologies in animal feed science and technology). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 138(2):189-194.
Cardozo, P. W., S. Calsamiglia, A. Ferret and C. Kamel. 2004. Effects of natural plant extracts on ruminal protein degradation and fermentation profiles in continuous culture. J. Anim. Sci. 82(11):3230-3236.
Chaudhry, A. S. 1998. Chemical and biological procedures to upgrade cereal straws for ruminants. Nutr. Abstr. Rev. 68(5):319-331.
Chaudhry, A. S. 2008. Slaughtered cattle as a source of rumen fluid to evaluate supplements for in vitro degradation of grass nuts and barley straw. Open Vet. Sci. J. 2:16-22.
Devendra, C. and C. C. Sevilla. 2002. Availability and use of feed resources in crop-animal systems in Asia. Agric. Syst. 71(1-2):59-73.
Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1970. Forage fibre analysis. In: Agriculture Hand book. US Department of Agriculture.
Hall, W. C. and J. Haczkaylo. 1963. Folin -Wu- Method for determination of glucose. In: Methods and procedures for plant biochemical research. The exchange stores, College Station, Texas.
Harris, B., A. L. Adams and H. H. Van Horn. 2003. Mineral needs of dairy cattle. Animal Science Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Florida, USA.
Hiai, S., H. Oura and T. Nakajima. 1976. Color reaction of some sapogenins and saponins with vanillin and sulphuric acid. Plant Med. 29:116-122.
Hoover, W. H. and S. R. Stokes. 1991. Balancing carbohydrates and protein for optimum rumen microbial yield. J. Dairy Sci. 74(10):3630-3644.
Hu, W., J. Liu, J. Ye, Y. Wu and Y. Guo. 2005. Effect of tea saponin on rumen fermentation in vitro. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 120(3/4):333-339.
Jackson, M. G. 1977. Rice straw as livestock feed. Wild Anim. Rev. 23:25-29.
Jayaprakasha, G. K., L. Jagan, R. Mohan and K. K. Sakariah. 2005. Chemistry and biological activities of C. longa. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 16(12):533-548.
Kent-Jones, D. W. and A. J. Amos. 1967. Modern cereal chemistry. 6th ed. The Northern Publishing Co. Ltd. Liverpool England.
Khandaker, Z. H., H. Steingass and W. Drochner. 1998. Supplementation of wheat straw with sesbania on voluntary intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 28(1):23-29.
Khanum, F., K. R. Sudarshanakrishna, A. D. Semwal and K. R. Vishwanathan. 2001. Proximate composition and mineral contents of spices. Indian J. Nutr. Diet. 38(3):93-97.
Lewis, E. and J. H. Lane. 1931. The determination of small proportions of invert sugar in raw sugars. J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 50:85T-96T.
Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds (Special issue. Advanced research on the nutrition of sheep and goats, with special reference to pasture and rangeland use). Small Rumin. Res. 49:241-256.
Makkar, H. P. S., P. Siddhuraju and K. Becker. 2007. Plant secondary metabolites. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ, USA.
Makled, M. N. 1974. Mineral composition of some common feedstuffs. Alex. J. Agric. Res. 22(1):23-28.
McDonald, P., R. A. Edwards, J. F. Greenhalgh and C. A. Morgan. 2002. Animal nutrition. Longman Group Limited Harlow.
McDougall, E. I. 1948. Studies on ruminant saliva. I. The composition and output of sheep's saliva. Biochem. J. 43:99-109.
Min, B. R., T. N. Barry, G. T. Attwood and W. C. McNabb. 2003. The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 106(1-4):3-19.
Mould, F. L. and E. R. Orskov. 1983. Manipulation of rumen fluid pH and its influence on cellulolysis in sacco, dry matter degradation and the rumen microflora of sheep offered either hay or concentrate. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 10(1):1-14.
Muetzel, S., E. M. Hoffmann and K. Becker. 2003. Supplementation of barley straw with Sesbania pachycarpa leaves in vitro: effects on fermentation variables and rumen microbial population structure quantified by ribosomal RNA-targeted probes. Br. J. Nutr. 89(4):445-453.
NRC. 1996. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle. 7th ed. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
Osman, M. A. 2004. Changes in sorghum enzyme inhibitors, phytic acid, tannins and in vitro protein digestibility occurring during Khamir (local bread) fermentation. Food Chem. 88(1):129-134.
Ozcan, M. M. and M. Akbulut. 2008. Estimation of minerals, nitrate and nitrite contents of medicinal and aromatic plants used as spices, condiments and herbal tea. Food Chem. 106(2):852-858.
Ozkutlu, F., S. M. Kara and N. Sekeroglu. 2007. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some spices cultivated in Turkey. Acta Hortic. 756:321-327.
Pan, X. and Y. Sano. 2005. Fractionation of wheat straw by atmospheric acetic acid process. Bioresour. Technol. 96(11):1256-1263.
Patra, A. K. 2007. Nutritional management in organic livestock farming for improved ruminant health and production - an overview. Livest. Res. Rural Dev. 19(3):41.
Patra, A. K., D. N. Kamra and N. Agarwal. 2006a. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffaloes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 128(3-4):276-291.
Patra, A. K., D. N. Kamra and N. Agarwal. 2006b. Effect of spices on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and protozoa counts in in vitro gas production test. Int. Congr. Ser. 1293:176-179.
Singh, U. P., D. P. Singh, S. Maurya, M. Ruchi, S. Mandavi, R. S. Dubey and R. B. Singh. 2004. Investigation on the phenolics of some spices having pharmacotherapeutic properties. J. Herb. Pharmacother. 4(4):27-42.
Singleton, V. L. and J. A. Rossi. 1965. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16(3):144-158.
Sweeney, R. A. and P. R. Rexroad. 1987. Comparison of LECO FP-228 "nitrogen determinator" with AOAC copper catalyst Kjeldahl method for crude protein. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 70(6):1028-1030.
Van Soest, P. J. 2006. Rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve quality. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 130(3/4):137-171.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74(10):3583-3597.
Variyar, P. S., C. Bandyopadhyay and P. Thomas. 1998. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the phenolic acids of some Indian spices. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 33(6):533-537.