Albright, J. L. 1991. To group or not to group. Beef/Dairy Report, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, pp. 45-50.
Andersen, H. R., C. C. Krohn, J. Foldager, L. Munksgaard and S. Klastrup. 1991. Influence of housing and feeding on behaviour, feed intake, growth and carcass and meat quality (in Danish, with English summary and subtitles). Report from the National Institute of Animal Science, Denmark, 39 pp.
Anderson, I. L., E. Naevdal, M. Bakken and K. E. Boe. 2004. Aggression and group size in domesticated pigs, Sus scrofa: 'when the winner takes it all and the looser is standing small'. Anim. Behav. 68:965-975.
Bouissou, M. F., A. Boiisy, P. Le Neindre and I. Veissier. 2001. The social behaviour of cattle. In: Keeling, L. J., Gonyou, H. W. (Eds.), Social behavior in Farm Animals. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp. 113-145.
Childress, M. J. and M. A. Lung. 2003. Predation risk, gender and the group size effect: does elk vigilance depend upon the behaviour of conspecifics. Anim. Behav. 66:389-398.
Christman, M. C. and E. H. Leone. 2007. Statistical aspects of the analysis of group size effects in confined animals. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 103:265-283.
Daelemans, J. and A. Maton. 1987. Beef production with special reference to fattening bulls. In: Welfare aspects of housing systems for veal calves and fattening bulls (Ed. M. C. Schlicting and D. Smidt). Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp. 61-71.
David, V. L., G. Vanessa, Marina A. G. von Keyserlingk, A. M. de Passille and R. Jeffrey. 2009. Allogrooming in cattle: Relationships between social performances, feeding displacements and social dominance. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 116:141-149.
Estevez, I., L. Keeling and R. C. Newberry. 2003. Decreasing aggression with increasing group size in young domestic fowl. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 84:213-218.
Estevez, I., R. C. Newberry and L. Keeling. 2002. Dynamics of aggression in the domestic fowl. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 76:307-325.
EU-SCAHAW (Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare). 2001. The Welfare of Cattle Kept for Beef Production. Home page address: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scah/out54_en.pdf (Access 20 March, 2009).
Fregonesi, J. A. and J. D. Leaver. 2002. Influence of space allowance and milk yield level on behaviour, performance and health of dairy cows housed in strawyard and cubicle system. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68:1-11.
Gonzalez, L. A., A. Ferret, X. Manteca, J. L. Ruiz de la Torre, S. Calsamiglia, M. Devant and A. Bach. 2008. Performance, behavior, and welfare of Friesian heifers housed in pens with 2, 4, and 8 individuals per concentrate feeding place. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1446-1458.
Gygax, L., C. Mayer, H. Schulze Westerath, K. Friedli and B. Wechsler. 2007. On-farm assessment of the welfare of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different floor quality. Anim. Welf. 16:205-208.
Han, J. H., J. H. Jeon, D. J. Kim, H. H. Chang, J. M. Koo, Y. K. Kim, S. L. Lee, E. J. Kim, H. C. Lee, H. J. Lee and S. C. Yeon. 2005. Effects of space allowance on the social behavior of Korean native (Bos Taurus coreanae) steers. Kor. J. Vet. Res. 45:245-250.
Hardy, R. 1980. Observations on the performance and behaviour of finishing steers kept on two housing systems. Anim. Prod. 30:456 (Abstr.).
Hickey, M. C., P. French and J. Grant. 2002. Out-wintering pads for finishing beef cattle: animal production and welfare. Anim. Sci. 75:447-458.
Hopewell, L., R. Rossiter, E. Blower, L. Leaver and K. Goto. 2005. Grazing and vigilance by Soay sheep on Lundy island: influence of group size, terrain and the distribution of vegetation. Behav. Precesses 70:186-193.
Irie, M., Y. Inno, Y. Ishizuka, T. Nishioka and T. Morita. 2006. Vitamins A and E in carcass fat from Japanese Black and F1 cross cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1266-1270.
Kondo, S., J. Sekine, M. Okubo and Y. Adahida. 1989. The effect of group size and space allowance on the agonistic and spacing behaviour of cattle. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 24:127-135.
Kutner, M. H., C. J. Nachtsheim and J. Neter. 2004. Applied linear regression models (4th ed.). New York: McGRAW-HILL Companies, INC.
Lee, H. J., S. C. Lee, Y. G. Oh, K. H. Kim, H. B. Kim, Y. H. Park, H. S. Chae and I. B. Chung. 2003. Effects of rumen protected oleic acid in the diet on animal performances, carcass quality and fatty acid composition of Hanwoo steers. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16:1003-1010.
Nakanishi, Y., Y. Shimizu, T. Sumiyoshi, T. Kawamura, T. Goto and R. Umetsu. 1993. Relationship between social grooming and agonistic behaviour in a stable fattening cattle herd. J. Fac. Agric. Kyushu Univ. 37:325-329.
National Research Council. 1996. Nutrients requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. editoion. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Nielsen, B. L. 1999. On the interpretation of feeding behaviour measures and the use of feeding rate as an indicator of social constraint. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 63:79-91.
NLCF. 2004. Korean carcass grading standard. National Livestock Cooperatives Federation, Republic of Korea.
Olofsson. J. 1999. Competition for total mixed diets fed for ad libitum intake using one or four cows per feeding station. J. Dairy Sci. 82:69-79.
Park, G. B., S. S. Moon, Y. D. Ko, J. K. Ha, H. H. Chang and S. T. Joo. 2002. Influence of slaughter weight and sex on yield and quality grades of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 80:129-136.
Pelly, M. C., A. Lirette and T. Tennessen. 1995. Observations on the response of feedlot cattle to attempted environmental enrichment. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 75:631-632.
Ruis-Heutinck, L. F. M., M. C. J. Smits, A. C. Smits and J. J. Heeres. 2000. Effects of floor type and floor area on behaviour and carpal joint lesions in beef bulls. In: Improving health and welfare in animal production (Ed. H. J. Blokhuis, E. D. Ekkel and B. Wechsler). EAAP publication no. 102. Wageningen Pers, Wageningen, pp. 29-36.
SAS Institute. 1996. SAS User's Guide. Version 6.12. SAS Institute Inc., Cary. NC.
Sato, S., S. Sako and A. Maeda. 1991. Social licking patterns in cattle (Bos taurus): Influence of environmental and social factors. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 32:3-12.
Seo, K. S., Y. N. Shen, A. J. Salces, D. H. Yoon, H. G. Lee and S. H. Kim. 2006. Correlation analysis between the breeding value of carcass traits in Hanwoo (Korean Brown Cattle), Bos Taurus, L. and spot intensity on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1404-1408.
Turner, S. P., M. Ewen, J. A. Rooke and S. A. Edwards. 2000. The effects of space allowance on performance, aggression and immune competence of growing pigs housed on straw deep-litter at different group sizes. Livest. Prod. Sci. 66:47-55.