Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Formation and Physical Properties of Yogurt
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Formation and Physical Properties of Yogurt
Lee, W.J.; Lucey, J.A.;
  PDF(new window)
Yogurt gels are a type of soft solid, and these networks are relatively dynamic systems that are prone to structural rearrangements. The physical properties of yogurt gels can be qualitatively explained using a model for casein interactions that emphasizes a balance between attractive (e.g., hydrophobic attractions, casein cross-links contributed by calcium phosphate nanoclusters and covalent disulfide cross-links between caseins and denatured whey proteins) and repulsive (e.g., electrostatic or charge repulsions, mostly negative at the start of fermentation) forces. Various methods are discussed to investigate the physical and structural attributes of yogurts. Various processing variables are discussed which influence the textural properties of yogurts, such as total solids content, heat treatment, and incubation temperatures. A better understanding of factors contributing to the physical and structural attributes may allow manufacturers to improve the quality of yogurt.
Yogurt;Rheology;Whey Separation;Microstructure;
 Cited by
Physicochemical and Sensory Characterization of Ginger-juice Yogurt during Fermentation,;;;;;;

Food Science and Biotechnology, 2012. vol.21. 6, pp.1541-1548 crossref(new window)
Microencapsulation of Ubiquinone Using Complex Coacervation for Functional Yoghurt,;;;;

Food Science and Biotechnology, 2015. vol.24. 3, pp.895-904 crossref(new window)
Afonso, I. M. and J. M. Maia. 2000. Rheological monitoring of structure development and rebodying of set-style yoghurt. Appl. Rheol. 10:73-79.

Arshad, H., M. Paulsson and P. Dejmek. 1993. Rheology of buildup, breakdown, and rebodying of acid casein gels. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3310-3316. crossref(new window)

Auty, M. A. E., M. Twomey, T. P. Guinee and D. M. Mulvihill. 2001. Development and application of confocal scanning laser microscopy methods for studying the distribution of fat and protein in selected dairy products. J. Dairy Res. 68:417-427.

Beal, C., J. Skokanova, E. Latrille, N. Martin and G. Corrieu. 1999. Combined effects of culture conditions and storage time on acidification and viscosity of stirred yogurt. J. Dairy Sci. 82:673-681. crossref(new window)

Becker, T. and Z. Puhan. 1989. Effect of different processes to increase the milk solids non fat content on the rheological properties of yogurt. Milchwissenschaft 44:626-629.

Biliaderis, C. G., M. M. Khan and G. Blank. 1992. Rheological and sensory properties of yogurt from skim milk and ultrafiltered retentates. Int. Dairy J. 2:311-323. crossref(new window)

Cayot, P., J-F. Fairise, B. Colas, D. Lorient and G. Brule. 2003. Improvement of rheological properties of firm acid gels by skim milk heating is conserved after stirring. J. Dairy Res. 70:423-431. crossref(new window)

Cho-Ah-Ying, F., C. L. Duitschaever and C. Buteau. 1990. Influence of temperature of incubation on the physicochemical and sensory quality of yoghurt. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 8:11-14.

Codex Alimentarius. 2008. Codex standard for fermented milks. Accessed on April 19, 2010.

Dannenberg, F. and H.-G. Kessler. 1988. Effect of denaturation of ${\beta}-lactoglobulin$ on texture properties of set-style nonfat yoghurt. 1. Syneresis. Milchwissenschaft 43:632-635.

Dalgleish, D. G. and A. J. R. Law. 1988. pH-induced dissociation of bovine casein micelles. 1. Analysis of liberated caseins. J. Dairy Res. 55:529-538. crossref(new window)

Dalgleish, D. G. and A. J. R. Law. 1989. pH-induced dissociation of bovine casein micelles. II. Mineral solubilization and its relation to casein release. J. Dairy Res. 56:727-735. crossref(new window)

De Lorenzi, L., D. Pricl and G. Torriano. 1995. Rheological behavior of low-fat and full-fat stirred yoghurt. Int. Dairy J. 5:661-671. crossref(new window)

Færgemand, M. and K. B. Qvist. 1997. Transglutaminase: effect on rheological properties, microstructure and permeability of set style acid skim milk gel. Food Hydrocolloids 11:287-292. crossref(new window)

Færgemand, M., M. V. Sorensen, U. Jorgensen, G. Budolfsen and K. B. Qvist. 1999. Transglutaminase: effect on instrumental and sensory texture of set style yoghurt. Milchwissenschaft 54:563-566.

Geraghty, R. and F. Butler. 1999. Viscosity characterization of a commercial yogurt at $5^{\circ}C$ using a cup in bob and a vane geometry over a wide shear rate range $(10^{-5}\;s^{-1}-10^3\;s^{-1})$. J. Food Process Eng. 22:1-10. crossref(new window)

Guirguis, N., M. C. Broome and M. W. Hickey. 1984. The effect of partial replacement of skim milk powder with whey protein concentrate on the viscosity and syneresis of yoghurt. Aust. J. Dairy Technol. 39:33-35.

Haque, A., R. K. Richardson and E. R. Morris. 2001. Effect of fermentation temperature on the rheology of set and stirred yogurt. Food Hydrocoll. 15:593-602. crossref(new window)

Harwalkar, V. R. and M. Kalab. 1980. Milk gel structure. XI. Electron microscopy of $glucono-{\delta}-lactone-induced$ skim milk gels. J. Texture Stud. 11:35-49. crossref(new window)

Harwalkar, V. R. and M. Kalab. 1983. Susceptibility of yoghurt to syneresis. Comparison of centrifugation and drainage methods. Milchwissenschaft 38:517-522.

Harwalkar, V. R. and M. Kalab. 1986. Relationship between microstructure and susceptibility to syneresis in yoghurt made from reconstituted nonfat dry milk. Food Microstruct. 5:287-294.

Horne, D. S. 1998. Casein interactions: Casting light on the Black Boxes, the structure in dairy products. Int. Dairy J. 8:171-177. crossref(new window)

Jaros, D., C. Partschefeld, T. Henle and H. Rohm. 2006. Transglutaminase in dairy products: chemistry, physics, applications. J. Texture Stud. 37:113-155. crossref(new window)

Kalab, M., P. Allan-Wojtas and B. E. Phipps-Todd. 1983. Development of microstructure in set-style nonfat yoghurt - A review. Food Microstruct. 2:51-66.

Keogh, M. K. and B. T. O'Kennedy. 1998. Rheology of stirred yogurt as affected by added milk fat, protein, and hydrocolloids. J. Food Sci. 63:108-112. crossref(new window)

Lee, W. J. and J. A. Lucey. 2003. Rheological properties, whey separation, and microstructure in set-style yogurt: Effects of heating temperature and incubation temperature. J. Texture Stud. 34:515-536. crossref(new window)

Lee, W. J. and J. A. Lucey. 2004. Structure and physical properties of yogurt gels: Effect of inoculation rate and incubation temperature. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3153-3164. crossref(new window)

Lee, W. J. and J. A. Lucey. 2006. Impact of gelation conditions and structural breakdown on the physical and sensory properties of stirred yogurts. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2374-2385. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A. 2001. The relationship between rheological parameters and whey separation in acid milk gels. Food Hydrocoll. 15:603-608. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A. 2004. Formation, structural properties and rheology of acid-coagulated milk gels. In Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology. Vol. 1. General Aspects (Ed. P. F. Fox, P. L. H. McSweeney, T. M. Cogan and T. P. Guinee). 3rd ed. Elsevier Academic Press, London. pp. 105-122.

Lucey, J. A., C. T. Teo, P. A. Munro and H. Singh. 1997. Rheological properties at small (dynamic) and large (yield) deformations of acid gels made from heated milk. J. Dairy Res. 64:591-600. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A., P. A. Munro and H. Singh. 1998a. Whey separation in acid skim milk gels made with $glucono-{\delta}-lactone:$ Effects of heat treatment and gelation temperature. J. Texture Stud. 29:413-426. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A., C. T. Teo, P. A. Munro and H. Singh. 1998b. Microstructure, permeability and appearance of acid gels made from heated skim milk. Food Hydrocoll. 12:159-165. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A., M. Tamehana, H. Singh and P. A. Munro. 1998c. Effect of interactions between denatured whey proteins and casein micelles on the formation and rheological properties of acid skim milk gels. J. Dairy Res. 65:555-567. crossref(new window)

Lucey, J. A., P. A. Munro and H. Singh. 1999. Effects of heat treatment and whey protein addition on the rheological properties and structure of acid skim milk gels. Int. Dairy J. 9:275-279. crossref(new window)

Martin, N. C., J. Skokanova, E. Latrille, C. Beal and G. Corrieu. 1999. Influence of fermentation and storage conditions on the sensory properties of plain low fat stirred yogurts. J. Sens. Stud. 14:139-160. crossref(new window)

Mellema, M., P. Walstra, J. H. J. van Opheusden and T. van Vliet. 2002. Effects of structural rearrangements on the rheology of rennet-induced casein particle gels. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 98:25-50. crossref(new window)

Mulvihill, D. M. and M. B. Grufferty. 1995. Effect of thermal processing on the coagulability of milk by acid. In Heat-induced Changes in Milk. Special Issue No. 9501 (Ed. P. F. Fox). International Dairy Federation, Brussels. pp. 188-205.

Parnell-Clunies, E. M., Y. Kakuda, K. Mullen, D. R. Arnott and J. M. deMan. 1986. Physical properties of yogurt: A comparison of vat versus continuous heating systems of milk. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2593-2603. crossref(new window)

Peng, Y., M. Serra, D. S. Horne and J. A. Lucey. 2009. Effect of fortification with various types of milk proteins on the rheological properties and permeability of nonfat set yogurt J. Food Sci. 74:666-673. crossref(new window)

Peng, Y., D. S. Horne and J. A. Lucey. 2010. Physical properties of acid milk gels prepared at $37^{\circ}C$ up to gelation but different incubation temperatures for the remainder of fermentation. J. Dairy Sci. 93:1910-1917. crossref(new window)

Ramaswamy, H. S. and S. Basak. 1991. Rheology of stirred yogurts. J. Texture Stud. 22:231-241. crossref(new window)

Rao, M. A. 1999. Rheology of fluids and semisolid foods. Aspen Publishers, Inc., Maryland.

Ronnegard, E. and P. Dejmek. 1993. Development and breakdown of structure in yoghurt studied by oscillatory rheological measurements. Lait 73:371-379. crossref(new window)

Schmidt, D. G. 1982. Electron microscopy of milk and milk products: problems and possibilities. Food Microstruct. 1:151-165.

Schorsch, C., H. Carrie and I. T. Norton. 2000. Cross-linking casein micelles by a microbial transglutaminase: influence of cross-links in acid-induced gelation. Int. Dairy J. 10:529-539. crossref(new window)

Serra, M., A. J. Trujillo, P. D. Jaramillo, B. Guamis and V. Ferragut. 2008. Ultra-high homogenization-induced changes in skim milk: Impact on acid coagulation properties. J. Dairy Res. 75:69-75.

Serra, M., A. J. Trujillo, B. Guamis and V. Ferragut. 2009. Evaluation of physical properties during storage of set and stirred yogurts made from ultra-high pressure homogenizationtreated milk. Food Hydrocoll. 23:82-91. crossref(new window)

Skriver, A. 1995. Characterization of stirred yoghurt by rheology, microscopy and sensory analysis. Ph.D thesis. The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Skriver, A., H. Roemer and K. B. Qvist. 1993. Rheological characterization of stirred yoghurt viscometry. J. Texture Stud. 24:185-198. crossref(new window)

Skriver, A., J. Holstborg and K. B. Qvist. 1999. Relation between sensory texture analysis and rheological properties of stirred yogurt. J. Dairy Res. 66:609-618. crossref(new window)

Sodini, I., F. Remeuf, S. Haddad and G. Corrieu. 2004. The relative effect of milk base, starter, and process on yogurt texture: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 44:113-137. crossref(new window)

Tamime, A. Y. and H. Deeth. 1980. Yogurt: Technology and biochemistry. J. Food Prot. 43:939-977.

Tamime, A. Y. and R. K. Robinson. 1999. Yoghurt: Science and Technology. 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

van Dijk, H. J. M. and P. Walstra. 1986. Syneresis of curd. 2. One-dimensional syneresis of rennet curd in constant conditions. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 40:3-30.

van Marle, M. E., D. van den Ende, C. G. de Kruif and J. Mellema. 1999. Steady-shear viscosity of stirred yogurts with varying ropiness. J. Rheol. 43:1643-1662. crossref(new window)

van Vliet, T., J. A. Lucey, K. Grolle and P. Walstra. 1997. Rearrangements in acid-induced casein gels during and after gel formation. In: Food Colloids: Protein, Lipids, and Polysaccharides (Ed. E. Dickinson and B. Bergenstahl). Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. pp. 335-345.

van Vliet, T. 2000. Structure and rheology of gels formed by aggregated protein particles. In: Hydrocolloids. Part 1. (Ed. K. Nishinari). Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam. pp. 367-377.

van Vliet, T. and P. Walstra. 1995. Large deformation and fracture behavior of gels. Faraday Discuss. 101:359-370. crossref(new window)

van Vliet, T., H. J. M. van Dijk, P. Zoon and P. Walstra. 1991. Relation between syneresis and rheological properties of particle gels. Colloid Polym. Sci. 269:620-627. crossref(new window)

Vedamuthu, E. R. 1991. The yogurt story-past, present and future. Dairy Food Environ. Sanitation. 7:371-374.

Wacher-Rodarte, C., M. V. Galvin, A. Farres, F. Gallardo, V. M. E. Marshall and M. Garcia-Garibay. 1993. Yogurt production from reconstituted skim milk using different polymer and non polymer forming starter cultures. J. Dairy Res. 60:247-254. crossref(new window)

Walstra, P. 1998. Relation between structure and texture of cultured milk products. In: Texture of Fermented Milk Products and Dairy Desserts. Special Issue 9802. International Dairy Federation, Brussels. pp. 9-15.