Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Dietary Lysine Restriction and Energy Density on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Dietary Lysine Restriction and Energy Density on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs
Jin, Y.H.; Oh, H.K.; Piao, L.G.; Jang, S.K.; Choi, Y.H.; Heo, P.S.; Jang, Y.D.; Kim, Y.Y.;
  PDF(new window)
This experiment evaluated the effects of dietary lysine restriction and energy density on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality of finishing pigs. A factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized in a randomized complete block (RCB) design, and factor 1 was lysine restriction and factor 2 was energy density. The control diet was formulated to contain 3.265 Mcal of ME/kg, 0.75% lysine in the early-finishing phase and 3.265 Mcal of ME/kg, 0.60% lysine in the late-finishing phase and other nutrients met or exceeded NRC (1998) standards. Compared to the control diet (CON), lysine levels of experimental diets were restricted to 15% (treatment EL, EEL) or 30% (treatment ELL, EELL), whereas energy level of experimental diets was increased by 0.100 or 0.200 Mcal of ME/kg. A total of 100 crossbred pigs ([YorkshireLandrace]Duroc), with average initial body weight of , were allotted to 5 dietary treatments based on sex and body weight. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 4 pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. ADG, ADFI and feed efficiency were calculated in an 8-week growth trial. In the late finishing period (5-8 weeks), pigs fed ELL or EELL diets had decreased ADG and feed efficiency (p<0.01), however, when the EEL diet was provided, a similar growth performance was observed compared to those fed the CON diet during the whole experimental period (p>0.05). In a metabolic trial, 15 pigs were used to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine restriction and energy density on nutrient digestibility. The digestibility of dry matter, crude fat and crude ash was not improved by restricting dietary lysine or energy density. However, crude protein digestibility was decreased (p<0.05) as dietary lysine was restricted. When dietary lysine was restricted, fecal nitrogen was increased whereas nitrogen retention was decreased. BUN concentration was affected by dietary lysine restriction; treatments ELL and EELL had higher BUN values than other treatments (p<0.01). Carcass characteristics and meat quality were measured when average body weight of pigs reached . Treatment ELL had higher last rib backfat depth (p<0.05) than treatment CON, but ELL and EEL did not differ significantly. The ELL and EEL treatments had higher (p<0.05) subjective marbling score than treatment CON. Treatment EEL showed higher longissimus fat content than treatment EL and CON (p<0.01). The results indicated that finishing pigs fed a diet with 15% lysine restriction and 3.465 Mcal of ME/kg energy density had no detrimental effects on growth performance and N utilization, and could achieve substantial increases in marbling and longissimus fat content of pork.
Lysine;Dietary Energy;Growth;Meat Quality;Finishing Pig;
 Cited by
Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Amino Acid Absorption Mode in Growing Pigs,Zeng, P.L.;Yan, H.C.;Wang, X.Q.;Zhang, C.M.;Zhu, C.;Shu, G.;Jiang, Q.Y.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2013. vol.26. 7, pp.1003-1011 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs,Kim, Y.W.;Ingale, S.L.;Kim, J.S.;Kim, K.H.;Chae, B.J.;

Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2011. vol.24. 9, pp.1256-1267 crossref(new window)
Effects of Dietary Lysine and Energy Levels on Growth Performance and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2011, 24, 9, 1256  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of Dietary Lysine Levels on Apparent Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Amino Acid Absorption Mode in Growing Pigs, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2013, 26, 7, 1003  crossref(new windwow)
The effect of protein restriction during the growing period on carcass, meat and fat quality of heavy barrows and gilts, Meat Science, 2016, 112, 16  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of sex and dietary lysine on performances and serum and meat traits in finisher pigs, animal, 2015, 9, 10, 1731  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of feeding wheat- or barley-based diets with low or and high nutrient density on nutrient digestibility and growth performance in weaned pigs, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2016, 218, 93  crossref(new windwow)
AOAC. 1995. Official methods of analysis, 15th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC.

Apple, J. K., C. V. Maxwell, D. C. Brown, K. G. Friesen, R. E. Musser, Z. B. Johnson and T. A. Armstrong. 2004. Effects of dietary lysine and energy density on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs fed ractopamine. J. Anim. Sci. 82:3277-3287.

Bikker, P., M. W. A. Verstegen, R. G. Campbell and B. Kemp. 1994. Digestible lysine requirement of gilts with high genetic potential for lean gain, in relation to the level of energy intake. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1744-1753.

Cameron, N. D., J. C. Penman, A. C. Fisken, G. R. Nute, A. M. Perry and J. D. Wood. 1999. Genotype with nutrition interactions for carcass composition and meat quality in pig genotypes selected for components of efficient lean growth rate. Anim. Sci. 69:69-80.

Campbell, R. G. and M. R. Taverner. 1988. Genotype and sex effects on the relationship between energy intake and protein deposition in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 66:676-686.

Castell, A. G., R. L. Cliplef, L. M. Poste-Flyun and G. Butler. 1994. Performance, carcass and pork characteristics of castrates and gilts self-fed diets differing in protein content and lysine:energy ratio. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 74:519-528. crossref(new window)

Cho, S. B., H. J. Lee, I. B. Chung, H. F. Long, J. S. Lim, Y. Y. Kim and In K. Han. 2008. Effects of dietary energy concentration and lysine on the digestible energy ration for apparent amino acid digestibility in finishing barrows. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21(2):232-236. crossref(new window)

DeVol, D. L., F. K. McKeith, P. J. Bechtel, J. E. Novakofski, R. D. Shanks and T. R. Carr. 1988. Variation in composition and palatability traits and relationships between muscle characteristics and palatability in a random sample of pork carcasses. J. Anim. Sci. 66:385-395.

Dubois, S. 1987. Effect of protein and lysine levels in the diet on body gain composition and energy utilization in growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 65:717-726.

Eggum, B. O. 1970. Blood urea measurement as a technique for assessing protein quality. Br. J. Nutr. 24:983-988. crossref(new window)

Ellis, M., A. J. Webb, P. J. Avery and I. Brown. 1996. The influence of terminal sire genotype, sex, slaughter weight, feeding regime and slaughter-house on growth performance and carcass and meat quality in pigs and on the organoleptic properties of fresh pork. Anim. Sci. 62:521-530. crossref(new window)

Friesen, K. G., J. L. Nelssen, R. D. Goodband, M. D. Tokach, J. A. Unruh, D. H. Kropf and B. J. Kerr. 1994. Influence of dietary lysine on growth and carcass composition of high-lean-growth gilts fed from 34 to 72 kilograms. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1761-1770.

Goerl, K. F., S. J. Eilert, R. W. Mandigo, H. Y. Chen and P. S. Miller. 1995. Pork characteristics as affected by two populations of swine and six crude protein levels. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3621-3626.

Hahn, J. D., R. R. Biehl and D. H. Baker. 1995. Ideal digestible lysine levels for early and late finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 73:773-784.

Honikel, D. O., C. J. Kim, R. Roncales and R. Hamm. 1986. Sarcomere shortening of prerigor muscles and its influence on drip loss. Meat Sci. 16:267-282. crossref(new window)

Kenji, M. 2002. Creating special pork for the Japanese market. Advances in Pork Prod.13:233-237.

Katsumata, M., Y. Kaji, R. Takada and M. J. Dauncey. 2007. Nutritional regulation of GLUT expression, glucose metabolism, and intramuscular fat content in porcine muscle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1297-1304. crossref(new window)

Kauffman, R. G., G. Eikelenboom, P. G. Vanderwal, G. Merkus and M. Zaar. 1986. The use of filter-paper to estimate drip loss of porcine musculature. Meat Sci. 18:191-200. crossref(new window)

Le Dividich, J., J. Noblet and T. Bikawa. 1987. Effect of environmental temperature and dietary energy concentration on the performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs fed to equal rate of gain. Livest. Prod. Sci. 17:235-246. crossref(new window)

Matthews, J. O., A. D. Higbie, L. L. Southern, D. F. Coombs, T. D. Bidner and R. L. Odgaard. 2003. Effect of chromium propionate and metabolizable energy on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 81:191-196.

Matthews, J. O., L. L. Southern, J. E. Pontif, A. D. Higbie and T. D. Bidner. 1998. Interactive effects of betaine, crude protein, and net energy in finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 76:2444-2455.

Myer, R. O., D. D. Johnson, D. A. Knauft, D. W. Gorbet, J. H. Brendemuhl and W. R. Walker. 1992. Effect of feeding high-oleic-acid peanuts to growing-finishing swine on resulting carcass fatty acid profile and on carcass and meat quality characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3734-3741.

Novakofski, J., S. Park, P. J. Bechtel and F. K. Mckeith. 1989. Composition of cooked pork chops: Effect of removing subcutaneous fat before cooking. J. Food Sci. 54:15-17. crossref(new window)

NPPC. 1999. Official color and marbling standards. Natl. Pork Prod. Council, Des Moines, IA.

NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine. 10th ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.

Rincker, P. J., J. Killefer, M. Ellis, M. S. Brewer and F. K. McKeith. 2008. Intramuscular fat content has little influence on the eating quality of fresh pork loin chops. J. Anim. Sci. 86:730-737.

SAS. 2006. SAS. User's guide; Statistics, SAS Inst. Inc. Cary. NC.

Schwab, C. R., T. J. Baas, K. Stalder and J. W. Mabry. 2006. Effect of long-term selection for increased leanness on meat and eating quality traits in Duroc swine. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1577-1583.

Smith, II, J. W., M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelssen and R. D. Goodband. 1999. Effects of lysine:calorie ratio on growth performance of 10- to 25-kilogram pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3000-3006.

Szabo', C., A. J. M. Jansman, L. Babinszky, E. Kanis and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2001. Effect of dietary protein source and lysine:DE ratio on growth performance, meat quality, and body composition of growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2857-2865.

Witte, D. P., M. Ellis, F. K. McKeith and E. R. Wilson. 2000. Effect of dietary lysine level and environmental temperature during the finishing phase on the intramuscular fat content of pork. J. Anim. Sci. 78:1272-1276.

Zhang, J., J. Yin, X. Zhou, F. Li, J. Ni and B. Dong. 2008. Effect of lower dietary lysine and energy content on carcass characteristics and meat quality in growing finishing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21(12):1785-1793. crossref(new window)