JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Changes in Metabolites Concentration in Nguni and Crossbred Calves on Natural Pasture
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Changes in Metabolites Concentration in Nguni and Crossbred Calves on Natural Pasture
Mapekula, M.; Mapiye, C.; Chimonyo, M.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Accurate assessment of the nutritional status of Nguni cattle is becoming increasingly important in determining their mechanism for adaptation to challenging environments. Changes in body weights and concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), phosphorus (SIP), calcium and magnesium were determined in Nguni and crossbred calves raised on natural pasture from birth until weaning. At an early age, TP concentration in crossbreds was higher (p<0.05) than that of Nguni calves. However, TP levels increased with age in Nguni calves so that Nguni's had higher (p<0.05) TP levels than crossbreds at weaning. Nguni calves had higher (p<0.05) glucose concentrations than crossbreds in all the ages except in the third month. Serum NEFA levels in Nguni calves were higher (p<0.05) than in crossbreds at all ages except for the second month. Calcium levels decreased (p<0.05) with age in both genotypes. The blood TP concentrations tended to decrease (p<0.05) as body weight increased up to 80 kg, thereafter blood TP concentration increased (p<0.05) as body weight increased. Calcium concentrations in crossbred calves decreased (p<0.05) quadratically as the body weight increased. There was, however, a linear increase (p<0.05) in calcium concentrations in Nguni calves. The higher NEFA and TP concentrations at weaning and the TP increase in Nguni calves beyond 80 kg suggest that Nguni's utilise fibrous feeds better than crossbreds.
 Keywords
Age;Calcium;Glucose;Non-esterified Fatty Acids;Total Protein;Calf;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Blood Metabolite Profiles in Cycling and Non-cycling Friesian-Sanga Cross-bred Cows Grazing Natural Pasture During the Post-partum Period, Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 2015, 50, 2, 304  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
AOAC. 2003. Association of analytical chemists official methods of analysis (14th edition). Washington, DC, USA.

2.
Beckerling, A. C., W. S. W. Trollope, M. M. Mbelu and P. F. Scogings. 1995. Simplified techniques for assessing veld condition for livestock production in the Ciskei Region. Agricultural and Rural Development Research Institute and Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.

3.
Bisalla, M., N. D. G. Ibrahim, I. A. Lawal and K. A. N. Esievo. 2007. Serum total protein, albumin and albumin globulin ratio in Yankasa sheep experimentally infected with Typanosoma congolense and immunomodlated with levamisole. J. Protozool. Res. 17:39-43.

4.
Cardenas-Medina, J. V., J. C. Ku-Vera, and J. G. Magana-Monforte. 2010. Estimation of metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance and energetic efficiency of weight gain in Bos taurus and Bos indicus cows in Tropical Mexico. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 9(2):421-428. crossref(new window)

5.
De Villiers, S., J. G. Van Der Walt and J. Procos. 1977. An accurate, sensitive and reproducible method for the colorimetric estimation of free fatty acids in plasma. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 44:169-172.

6.
Doornenbal, H., A. K. W. Tong and N. L. Murray. 1988. Reference values of blood parameters in beef cattle of different ages and stages of lactation. Can. J. Vet. Res. 52(1): 99-105.

7.
Kamimura, S., K. Goto and K. Hamana. 2006. Bulletin of the faculty of agriculture, Kagoshima University, Japan.

8.
Kapela, P. M., D. G. Japtap, D. M. Badukale and S. K. Sahatpure. 2008. Serum total proteins and serum total cholesterol levels in Gaolao cattle. Vet. World 1(4):115-116.

9.
Lesoli, M. S. 2008. Vegetation and soil status and human perceptions on the condition of communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. MSc Thesis, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.

10.
Mapekula, M. 2009. Milk production and calf performance in Nguni and crossbred cattle raised on communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. PhD Thesis, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa.

11.
Mapekula, M., M. Chimonyo, C. Mapiye and K. Dzama. 2011. Fatty acid, amino acid and mineral composition of milk from Nguni and local crossbred cows under low-input production systems in South Africa. J. Food Compost. Anal. doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2011.01.014. crossref(new window)

12.
Mapiye, C., M. Chimonyo and K. Dzama. 2009b. Seasonal dynamics, production potential and efficiency of cattle in the sweet and sour communal rangelands in South Africa. J. Arid Environ. 73(4-5):529-536. crossref(new window)

13.
Mapiye, C., M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama and M. C. Marufu. 2010a. Protein status of indigenous Nguni and crossbred cattle on semi-arid communal rangelands of South Africa. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23(2):213-225.

14.
Mapiye, C., M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama and M. C. Marufu. 2010b. Seasonal changes in energy-related blood metabolites and mineral profiles of Nguni and crossbred cattle on communal rangelands in the eastern cape, South Africa. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23(6):708-718. crossref(new window)

15.
Mapiye, C., M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama, J. G. Raats and M. Mapekula. 2009a. Opportunities for improving Nguni cattle production in the smallholder farming systems of South Africa. Livest. Sci. 124:196-204. crossref(new window)

16.
Marufu, M. C., M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama and C. Mapiye. 2010. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases in communal cattle reared on sweet and sour rangelands in a semi arid area of South Africa. Vet. J. 184:71-76. crossref(new window)

17.
Marufu, M. C., M. Chimonyo, K. Dzama and C. Mapiye. 2011. Tick loads in cattle raised on sweet and sour rangelands in the low-input farming areas of South Africa. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 43 (2): 307-313. crossref(new window)

18.
Mohri, M., K. Sharifi and S. Eidi. 2007. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Holstein dairy calves: Age related changes and comparison with blood composition in adults. Res. Vet. Sci. 83 (1):30-39. crossref(new window)

19.
Moody, D., W. D. Hohenboken, W. E. Beal and F. W. Thye. 1992. Concentration of plasma cholesterol in beef cows and calves, milk production and calf gain. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1464-1470.

20.
Muchenje, V., K. Dzama, M. Chimonyo, J. G. Raats and P. E. Strydom. 2008b. Tick susceptibility and its effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on natural pasture. Anim. 2:298-304.

21.
Muchenje, V., K. Dzama, M. Chimonyo, J. G. Raats and P. E. Strydom. 2008a. Meat quality of Nguni, Bonsmara and Aberdeen Angus is steers raised on natural pasture in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Meat Sci. 79:20-28. crossref(new window)

22.
Ndlovu, T., M. Chimonyo and V. Muchenje. 2009a. Monthly changes in body condition scores and internal parasite prevalence in Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on sweetveld. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 41(7):1169-1177. crossref(new window)

23.
Ndlovu, T., M. Chimonyo, A. I. Okoh, V. Muchenje, K. Dzama and J. G. Raats. 2007. Assessing the nutritional status of beef cattle: current practices and future prospects. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 6(24):2727-2734.

24.
Ndlovu, T., M. Chimonyo, A. I. Okoh, V. Muchenje, K. Dzama and S. Dube. 2009b. A comparison of nutritional-related blood metabolites among Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on sweetveld. Vet. J. 179:273-281. crossref(new window)

25.
Nicholson, M. J. and M. H. Butterworth. 1986. A guide to condition scoring of zebu cattle. Addis Ababa: International Livestock Centre for Africa. pp. 3-29.

26.
Otto, F., F. Vilela, M. Harun, G. Taylor, P. Baggasse and E. Bogin. 2000. Biochemical blood profile of Angoni cattle in Mozambique. Vet. J. 55(3):1-9.

27.
Pare, J., M. C. Thurmond, I. A. Gardner and J. P. Picanso. 1993. Effect of birthweight, total protein, serum IgG and packed cell volume on risk of neonatal diarrhea in calves on two California Dairies. Can. J. Vet. Res. 57:241-246.

28.
SAS. 2006. Statistical Analysis System Institute Inc. Users Guide, Version 9, Cary, NC, USA.

29.
Scherf, B. 2000. World Watch List for Domestic Animal Diversity, third ed. FAO, Rome.

30.
Shrikhande, G. B., A. M. Rode, M. S. Pradhan and A. K. Satpute. 2008. Seasonal effects on the composition of blood in cattle. Vet. World 1(11):341-342.

31.
Stokol, T. and D. V. Nydam. 2005. Effect of anticoagulant and storage conditions on bovine non-esterified fatty acid and $\beta$-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in blood. J. Dairy Sci. 88:3139-3144. crossref(new window)

32.
Tietz, N. W. 1993. Clinical guide to laboratory tests (3rd Ed.) WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

33.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre, and non-starch carbohydrates in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. crossref(new window)

34.
Whitaker, D. A., W. J. Goodger, M. Garcia, B. M. A. O. Perera and F. Wittwer. 1999. Use of metabolite profiles in dairy cattle in tropical and subtropical countries on smallholder dairy farms. Prev. Vet. Med. 38(2-3):119-131. crossref(new window)

35.
Young, D. S. 1990. Effects of drugs on clinical laboratory tests, (3rd ed.) AACC Press, Washington, DC, USA.