Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Feeding Enzymolytic Soybean Meal on Performance, Digestion and Immunity of Weaned Pigs
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Feeding Enzymolytic Soybean Meal on Performance, Digestion and Immunity of Weaned Pigs
Zhou, S.F.; Sun, Z.W.; Ma, L.Z.; Yu, J.Y.; Ma, C.S.; Ru, Y.J.;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of enzymolytic products of soybean meal (ESBM), as one of the protein sources in the diet, on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and immune function of weaned piglets. Soybean meal produced by bioprocessing with fermentation and enzymolysis contains reduced anti-nutritional factors and improved protein utilization. A total of 240 weaned piglets (DurocLandraceYorkshire, body weight) were randomly allocated to 4 treatments with 6 pens per treatment and 10 piglets per pen. The diets were based on corn-soybean meal and ESBM partially replaced soybean meal and soybean protein isolate at the inclusion level of 5, 10 or 15% in the basal diet. Feed intake and body weight were measured weekly. On days 24 to 27, faeces of each replicate were proportionally collected to determine the nutrient digestibility. On day 28 of the experiment, one piglet from each replicate was slaughtered humanely to collect immune organs. The results showed that inclusion of ESBM increased (p<0.05) the final weight, daily feed intake and daily gain of weaned pigs compared with the control diet, and ESBM at the inclusion levels of 10 and 15% improved (p<0.05) the feed/gain compared with the control diet. There were no differences (p>0.05) in daily feed intake among the levels of ESBM, but increasing the levels of ESBM from 5 to 15% improved (p<0.05) the final weight, average daily gain of pigs and feed/gain. The inclusion of ESBM at 5 to 15% increased (p<0.05) the digestibility of crude protein (CP) by 5 to 16%, and ESBM at 15% increased (p<0.05) the digestibility of digestible energy (DE), Ca and P compared with the control diet. ESBM increased (p<0.05) the relative weights of thymus and mandibular lymph nodes by 57.7 and 29.6%, respectively. The percentages of T lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ in peripheral blood of weaned piglets were also increased (p<0.05) by feeding ESBM. The results suggest that ESBM can be a better protein source in improving growth performance, nutrient digestibility and immune function of weaned piglets.
Enzymolytic Soybean Meal;Digestion;Immunity;Performance;Weaned Pig;
 Cited by
Assessing the Effects of Dietary Inclusion of Hydrolyzed Soy Protein on the Growth, Nutrient Retention, Body Composition, and Serum Hormone of Juvenile Starry Flounder,Platichthys stellatus, Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 2016, 47, 2, 230  crossref(new windwow)
Antioxidant capacities of Artemisia annua L. leaves and enzymatically treated Artemisia annua L. in vitro and in broilers, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2016, 221, 27  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of enzymatically hydrolyzed blood cells on growth performance and intestinal characteristics of newly weaned piglets, Livestock Science, 2013, 157, 2-3, 514  crossref(new windwow)
Andersson, R. and B. Hudlund. 1983. HPLC analysis of organic acids in lactic acid fermented vegetables. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch. 176:440-443. crossref(new window)

AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA.

Brain, P., J. Gordon and W. A. Willetts. 1970. Rosette formation by peripheral lymphocytes. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 6:681-688.

Caine, W. R., W. C. Sauer, S. Tamminga, M. W. Verstegen and H. Schulze. 1997. Apparent ileal digestibilities of amino acids in newly weaned pigs fed diets with protease-treated soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2962-2969.

Caine, W. R., M. W. A. Verstegen, W. C. Sauer, S. Tamminga and H. Schulze. 1998. Effect of protease treatment of soybean meal on content of total soluble matter and crude protein and level of soybean trypsin inhibitors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 71:177-183. crossref(new window)

Camden, B. J., P. C. H. Morel, D. V. Thomas, V. Ravindran and M. R. Bedford. 2001. Effectiveness of exogenous microbial phytase in improving the bioavailabilities of phosphorus and other nutrients in maize-soya-bean-meal diets for broilers. Anim. Sci. 73:289-298.

Dewey, C. E. 1993. Ration-induced diarrhea in grower pigs. Swine Health Prod. 1:16-21.

Dierick, N., J. Decuypere, K. Molly and E. Vanderbeke. 2004. Microbial protease addition to a soybean meal diet for weaned piglets: effects on performance, digestion, gut flora and gut function. Recent advances of research in antinutritional factors in legume seeds and oilseeds/EAAP publication. 4:229-233.

Feng, J., X. Liu, Z. R. Xu, Y. P. Lu and Y. Y. Liu. 2010. The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermented soybean meal on growth performance, digestibility of dietary components and activities of intestinal enzymes in weaned piglets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 134:295-303.

Fling, S. P. and D. S. Gregerson. 1986. Peptide and protein molecular weight determination by electrophoresis using a high-molarity tris buffer system without urea. Analyt. Biochem. 155:83-88. crossref(new window)

Garthoff, L. H., G. R. Henderson, A. O. Sager, T. J. Sobotka, D. W. Gaines, M. W. O'Donnell, R. Chi, S. J. Chirtel, C. N. Barton, L. H. Brown, F. A. Hines, T. Solomon, J. Turkleson, D. Berry, H. Dick, F. Wilson and M. A. Khan. 2002. Pathological evaluation, clinical chemistry and plasma cholecystokinin in neonatal and young miniature swine fed soy trypsin inhibitor from 1 to 39 weeks of age. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40:501-516. crossref(new window)

Jezierny, D., R. Mosenthin and E. Bauer. 2010. The use of grain legumes as a protein source in pig nutrition: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 157:111-128. crossref(new window)

Jones, C. K., J. M. DeRouchey, J. L. Nelssen, M. D.Tokach, S. S. Dritz and R. D. Goodband. 2010. Effects of fermented soybean meal and specialty animal protein sources on nursery pig performance. J. Anim. Sci. 88:1725-1732. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. W., E.van Heugten, F. Ji, C. H. Lee and R. D. Mateo. 2010a. Fermented soybean meal as a vegetable protein source for nursery pigs: I. Effects on growth performance of nursery pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 88:214-224. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. W. 2010b. Bio-fermentation technology to improve efficiency of swine nutrition. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23:825-832. crossref(new window)

Li, D. F., J. L. Nelssen, P. G. Reddy, F. Blecha, J. D. Hancock, G. L. Alee, R. D. Goodband and R. D. Klemm. 1990. Transient hypersensitivity to soybean meal in the early-weaned pig. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1790-1759.

Magne, C. and F. Larher. 1992. Higher sugar content of extracts interferes with the calorimetric determination of amino acids and free proline. Anal. Biochem. 200:115-118. crossref(new window)

Ranjit, C. 1984. Measuring impact using immunologic techniques. Chapter 7 in methods for the evaluation of the impact of food and nutrition programmes (Ed. D. E. Sahn, R. Lockwood, and N. S. Scrimshaw). United Nations University Press, Tokyo.

SAS Institute. 2002. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Version 9.0. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Short, F. J., P. Gorton, J. Wiseman and K. N. Boorman. 1996. Determination of titanium dioxide added as an inert marker in chicken digestibility studies. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59: 215-221. crossref(new window)

Song, Y. S., V. G. Pérez, J. E. Pettigrew and C. Martinez. 2010. Fermentation of soybean meal and its inclusion in diets for newly weaned pigs reduced diarrhea and measures of immunoreactivity in the plasma. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 159:41-49. crossref(new window)

Stokes, C. R., B. G. Mill, M. Bailey and F. J. Bource. 1986. The immune response to dietary antigens and its significance in animal production. In: hoc. 6th Int. Conf. on Production Disease in Farm Animals. Sept. 1986, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Yen, J. T., T. Hymowitz and A. H. Jensen. 1974. Effects of soybeans of different trypsin-inhibitor activities on performance of growing swine. J. Anim. Sci. 38:304-309.

Zhang, L. J., P. C. Qin and Y. C. Duan. 1979. Anatomy of pig, 2th. Scientific publishing in China. pp. 159-172.