Ali, M. B., E. J. Hahn and K. Y. Paek. 2006. Copper-induced changes in the growth, oxidative metabolism, and saponin production in suspension culture roots of panax ginseng in bioreactors. Plant Cell Rep. 25:1122-1132.
Buckley, D. J., P. A. Morrissey and J. I. Gray. 1995. Influence of dietary vitamin E on the oxidative stability and quality of pig meat. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3122-3130.
Choi, S. M., S. H. Son, S. R. Yun, O. W. Kwon, J. H. Seon and K. Y. Paek. 2000. Pilot-scale culture of adventitious roots of ginseng in a bioreactor system. Plant Cell Tissue Organ. Cult. 62:187-193.
Dey, L., J. T. Xie, A. Wang, J. Wu, S. A. Maleckar and C. S. Yuna. 2003. Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: comparison between root and berry. Phyomedicine 10:600-605.
Dong, X. F., W. W. Gao, J. M. Tong, H. Q. Jia, R. N. Sa and Q. Zhang. 2007. Effect of polysavone (alfalfa extract) on abdominal fat deposition and immunity in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 86:1955-1959.
Glick, B. 1977. The bursa of Fabricius and immunoglobulin synthesis. Int. Rev. Cytol. 48:345-402.
Heckert, R. A., I. Estevez, E. Russek-Cohen and R. Pettit-Riley. 2002. Effects of density and perch availability on the immune status of broilers. Poult. Sci. 81(4):451-457.
Hu, Y. J., Y. C. Lin, G. L. Zhou and D. Q. Yu. 2003. Effect of Chinese extracts on performance and T lymphocyte cell subset of yellow broilers. China Poult. 12:14-17.
Jang, H. D., H. J. Kim, J. H. Cho, Y. J. Chen, J. S. Yoo, B. J. Min, J. C. Park and I. H. Kim. 2007. Effect of dietary supplementation of fermented wild ginseng culture by products on egg productivity, egg quality, blood characteristics and ginsenoside concentration of yolk in laying hens. Kor. J. Poult. Sci. 34:271-278.
Jenkins, K. J. and A. S. Atwal. 1994. Effects of dietary saponins on fecal bile acids and neutral sterols, and availability of vitamins A and E in the chick. J. Nutr. Biochem. 5:134-135.
Jo, J. S., Y. N. Han, H. I. Oh, H. Park, H. S. Sung and J. I. Park. 1995. Korean ginseng has a characteristicshape. In Understanding of Korean Ginseng. pp. 37-38. Hanrimwon Publishing Co., Seoul Korea.
Kevers, C., P. Jacques, P. Thonart and P. Gaspar, 1999. In vitro root cultures of panax ginseng and P. quinquefolium. Plant Growth Regul. 27:173-178.
Kiefer, D. and T. Pantuso. 2003. Panax ginseng. Am. Farm Physician 68:1539-1542.
Lindahl, I. L., W. T. Shalkop, R. W. Dougherty, C. R. Thompson, G. R. Van Atta, E. M. Bickoff, E. D. Walter, A. G. Livingston, J. Guggolz, R. H. Wilson, M. B. Sideman and F. De Eds. 1957. Alfalfa saponins. Studies on their chemical, pharmacological, and physiological properties in relation to ruminant bloat. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 1161, Washington, DC.
McCarthy, T. L., J. P. Kerry, J. F. Kerry, P. B. Lynch and D. J. Buckley. 2001. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural food/plant extracts as compared with synthetic antioxidants and vitamin E in raw and cooked pork patties. Meat Sci. 57:45-52.
Milgate, J. and D. C. K. Roberts. 1995. The nutrition and biological significance of saponins. Nutr. Res. 15:1223-1249.
Muwalla, M. M. and N. M. Abuirmeileh. 1990. Suppression of avian hepatic cholesterogenesis by dietary ginseng. J. Nutr. Biochem. 1(10):518-521.
NRC. 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press, Washington, DC.
Palazon, J., R. M. Cusido, M. Bonfil, A. Mallol, E. Moyamo, C. Marales and M. T. Pinol. 2003. Elicitation of different Panax ginseng transformed root phenotypes for an improvement ginsenoside production. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 41:1019-1025.
Qureshi, A. A., Z. Z. Din, N. Abuirmeleh, W. C. Burger, Y. Ahmad and C. E. Elson. 1983. Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic. Impact on Serum Lipid. J. Nutr. 113:1746-1755.
SAS. 1996. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Version 7.0. SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Sticher, O. 1998. Getting to the root of ginseng. Chemtech 28:26-32.
Ushiyama, K. 1991. Large-scale culture of ginseng. In Plant cell cultrure in janpan: progress in production of useful plant metabolite by Japanese enterprises using plant cell culture technology (Ed, A. Komamine, M. Misawa and F. Dicosmo). CMC, Tokyo. pp. 92-98.
Vogler, B. K., M. H. Pittler and E. Ernst. 1999. The efficacy of ginseng: A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 55:567-575.
Witte, V. C., G. F. Krause and M. E. Bailey. 1970. A new extraction method for determining 2-thiobarbituric acid values for pork and beef during storage. J. Food Sci. 35:585-592.
Wu, J. and J. J. Zhong. 1999. Production of ginseng and its bioactive components in plant cell culture: Current technological and applied aspects. J. Biotechnol. 68:89-99.
Yu, K. W., W. Gao, E. J. Hahn and K. Y. Paek. 2002. Jasmonic acid improves ginsenoside accumulation in adventitious root culture of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Biochem. Eng. J. 11:211-215.
Zhang, X., L. Yu, H. T. Bi, X. H. Li, W. H. Ni, H. Han, N. Li, B. Q. Wang, Y. F. Zhou and G. H. Tai. 2009. Total fractionation and characterization of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Carbohydr. Polym. 77:544-552.