Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Energy Intake on Performance, Mobilization and Retention of Body Tissue, and Metabolic Parameters in Dairy Cows with Special Regard to Effects of Pre-partum Nutrition on Lactation - A Review -
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Energy Intake on Performance, Mobilization and Retention of Body Tissue, and Metabolic Parameters in Dairy Cows with Special Regard to Effects of Pre-partum Nutrition on Lactation - A Review -
Remppis, S.; Steingass, H.; Gruber, L.; Schenkel, H.;
  PDF(new window)
The present review focuses on the effects of energy intake on performance, changes in body tissue during lactation, and metabolic parameters in dairy cows. Especially, pre-partum nutrition and its influence on lactation are emphasized. In recent decades the increase in genetic potential of dairy cows has increased milk yield. This fact sharpens the problem of a negative energy balance in early lactation because the amount of energy required for maintenance and milk production exceeds the amount of energy cows can consume. Around parturition, reduced feed intake reinforces the situation. Continuing negative energy balance causes decreasing milk yield, fertility problems, and incidence of metabolic diseases. Hence, the cow has to rely on body reserves that were stored in late lactation and the dry period. It is evident that the nutritional status pre-partum acts as the key factor for milk yield and fertility parameters in the following lactation. Cows overfed during the foregoing gestation and which have gained large quantities of body fat have lower dry matter intake along with the need to mobilize larger quantities of body reserves in lactation. The milk yield in the following lactation is lower than in cows fed according to their requirements. Cows restrictively fed in late gestation have a higher feed intake in lactation and a lower mobilization of body reserves. The effect of energy intake post-partum plays only a minor role for performance parameters in lactation. Lipid mobilized from body reserves makes a substantial contribution to the energetic cost of milk production in early lactation and adipose tissue undergoes specific metabolic alterations. Adipose tissue is degraded to free fatty acids, which are used in liver for energy purposes. High lipid mobilisation promotes the development of a fatty liver and therefore a reduced gluconeogenesis.
Dry Matter Intake;Milk Production;Dry Period;Health;Mobilization;Metabolic Parameters;
 Cited by
Thin and fat cows, and the nonlinear genetic relationship between body condition score and fertility, Journal of Dairy Science, 2013, 96, 10, 6730  crossref(new windwow)
Milk production and composition, and body measurements of dairy cows receiving intramuscular injections of folic acid and vitamin B-12 in commercial dairy herds, Livestock Science, 2014, 167, 186  crossref(new windwow)
Influence of energy and nutrient supply pre and post partum on performance of multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in early lactation, animal, 2014, 8, 01, 58  crossref(new windwow)
Augmentation of Milk Production by Supplementing Bypass Fat in Dairy Animals, Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 2015, 10, 9, 476  crossref(new windwow)
Nutrient use efficiency in peri-urban dairy cattle and sheep holdings in southern Mali, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 2015, 102, 1, 65  crossref(new windwow)
Effect of feeding protected fat and proteins on milk production, composition and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2012, 171, 2-4, 98  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of yeast fermented-cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) on dietary intake and milk production of Holstein crossbred heifers and cows during pre- and post-partum period, Livestock Science, 2013, 154, 1-3, 112  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of dietary supplements of rumen-protected folic acid on lactation performance, energy balance, blood parameters and reproductive performance in dairy cows, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2016, 213, 55  crossref(new windwow)
Effects of folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation on culling rate, diseases, and reproduction in commercial dairy herds, Journal of Dairy Science, 2014, 97, 4, 2346  crossref(new windwow)
Metabolic parameters and their relationship to energy balance in multiparous Simmental, Brown Swiss and Holstein cows in the periparturient period as influenced by energy supply pre- and post-calving, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2015, 99, 1, 174  crossref(new windwow)
Dynamic model of milk production responses to grass-based diet variations during grazing and indoor housing, The Journal of Agricultural Science, 2015, 153, 04, 689  crossref(new windwow)
Agenas, S., E. Burstet and K. Holtenius. 2003. Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period. 1. Feed intake, body weight, and milk production. J. Dairy Sci. 86:870-882. crossref(new window)

Allrich, R. D., K. A. Berghorn and C. H. Noller. 1987. Influence of energy balance on ovarian activity and estrous behavior in postpartum dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 70 (Suppl. 1):184.

Andersson, L., A. H. Gustafsson and U. Emanuelson. 1991. Effect of hyperketonaemia and feeding on fertility in dairy cows. Theriogenology 36:521-536. crossref(new window)

Andrew, S. M., D. R. Waldo and R. A. Erdman. 1994. Direct analysis of body composition of dairy cows at three physiological stages. J. Dairy Sci. 77:3022-3033. crossref(new window)

Badinga, L., R. J. Collier, C. J. Wilcox and W. W. Thatcher. 1985. Interrelationships of milk yield, body weight, and reproductive performance. J. Dairy Sci. 68:1828-1831. crossref(new window)

Baird, G. D. 1982. Primary ketosis in the high-production dairy cow: Clinical and subclinical disorders, treatment, prevention, and outlook. J. Dairy Sci. 65:1-10. crossref(new window)

Baumann, D. E. and W. B. Currie. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: A Review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1514-1529. crossref(new window)

Beam, S. W. and W. R. Butler. 1999. Effects of energy balance on follicular development and first ovulation in postpartum dairy cows. J. Reprod. Fertil. Suppl. 54:411-424.

Beever, D. E., S. B. Cammell, J. D. Sutton, N. Rowe and G. E. Perrott. 1998. Energy metabolism in high yielding cows. In: Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science, Penicuik:13.

Bell, A. W. 1979. Lipid metabolism in liver and selected tissues and in the whole body of ruminant animals. Prog. Lipid Res. 18:117-164. crossref(new window)

Bell, A. W. 1995. Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2804-2819.

Bertics, S. J., R. R. Grummer, D. W. La Count, E. E. Stoddard and C. P. Cadorniga. 1991. Influence of prepartum dry matter intake on liver lipid percentage in periparturient cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 74 (Suppl. 1):276.

Bertics, S. J., R. R. Grummer, C. Cadorniga-Valino and E. E. Stoddard. 1992. Effect of prepartum dry matter intake on liver triglycerides concentration and early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 75:1914-1922. crossref(new window)

Bines, J. A. and S. V. Morant. 1983. The effect of body condition on metabolic changes associated with intake of food by the cow. Br. J. Nutr. 50:81-89. crossref(new window)

Blum, J. W., F. Jans, W. Moses, D. Frohli, M. Zemp, M. Wanner, I. C. Hart, R. Thun and U. Keller. 1985. Twentyfour-hour pattern of blood hormone and metabolite concentrations in high-yielding dairy cows: Effects of feeding low or high amounts of starch, or crystalline fat. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. Reihe A 32:401-418.

Boisclair, Y., D. G. Grieve, J. B. Stone, O. B. Allen and G. K. Macleod. 1986. Effect of prepartum energy, body condition, and sodium bicarbonate on production of cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2636-2647. crossref(new window)

Boisclair, Y., D. G. Grieve, O. B. Allen and R. A. Curtis. 1987. Effect of prepartum energy, body condition, and sodium bicarbonate on health and blood metabolites of Holstein cows in early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 70:2280-2290. crossref(new window)

Broster, W. H. and V. J. Broster. 1984. Reviews of the progress of dairy science: long term effects of plane of nutrition on the performance of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Res. 51:149-196. crossref(new window)

Broster, W. H., A. J. Clements, V. J. Broster, T. Smith, J. W. Siviter and R. E. Hill. 1989. Effect of amount and composition of feed given over three lactations on the performance of the dairy cow. J. Dairy Res. 56:561-577. crossref(new window)

Broster, W. H. and V. J. Broster. 1998. Body score of dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 65:155-173. crossref(new window)

Burke, C. R. and J. R. Roche. 2007. Effects of pasture feeding during the periparturient period on postpartum anovulation in grazed dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4304-4312. crossref(new window)

Butler, W. R., R. W. Everett and C. E. Coppock. 1981. The relationship between energy balance, milk production and ovulation in postpartum Holstein cows. J. Anim. Sci. 53:742-748.

Butler, W. R. and R. D. Smith. 1989. Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive function in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 72:767-783. crossref(new window)

Cameron, R. E. B., P. B. Dyk, T. H. Herdt, J. B. Kaneene, R. Miller, H. F. Buchholtz, J. S. Liesmann, M. J. Vandehaar and R. S. Emery. 1998. Dry cow diet, management, and energy balance as risk factors for displaced abomasum in high producing dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 81:132-139. crossref(new window)

Carlson, D. B., M. S. Laubach, W. L. Keller and C. S. Park. 2006. Effect of prepartum compensatory nutrition regimen on metabolism and performance of dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 101:251-261. crossref(new window)

Castaneda-Gutierrez E., S. H. Pelton, R. O. Gilbert and W. R. Butler. 2009. Effects of peripartum dietary energy supplementation of dairy cows on metabolites, liver function and reproductive variables. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 112:301-315. crossref(new window)

Chilliard, Y. 1987. Literature survey: body composition and lipid motabolism in adipose tissues and liver during pregnancy and lactation. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 27:327-398. crossref(new window)

Chilliard, Y., M. Cisse, R. Lefaivre and B. Remond. 1991. Body composition of dairy cows according to lactation stage, somatotropin treatment, and concentrate supplementation. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3103-3116. crossref(new window)

Chilliard, Y. 1992. Physiological constraints to milk production: Factors which determine nutrient partitioning, lactation persistency, and mobilization of body reserves. In: World review of Animal Production 27:20-26.

Chilliard, Y., F. Bocquier and M. Doreau. 1998. Digestive and metabolic adaptions of ruminants to undernurtition, and consequences on reproduction. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 38:131-152. crossref(new window)

Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay, Y. Faulconnier, M. Bonnet, J. Roul and F. Bocquier. 2000. Adipose tissue metabolism and its role in adaptions to undernutrition in ruminants. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 59:127-134. crossref(new window)

Colazo, M. G., A. Hayirli, L. Doepel and D. J. Ambrose. 2009. Reproductive performance of dairy cows is influenced by prepartum feed restriction and dietary fatty acid source. J. Dairy Sci. 92:2562-2571. crossref(new window)

Coppock, C. E. 1974. Displaced abomasum in dairy cattle: etiological factors. J. Dairy Sci. 57:926-933. crossref(new window)

Coppock, C. E., C. H. Noller and S. A. Wolfe. 1974. Effect of energy-concentrate ratio in complete feeds fed ad libitum on energy intake in relation to requirements by dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 57:1371-1380. crossref(new window)

Corro, M., I. Rubio, E. Castillo, L. Galindo, A. Aluja, C. S. Galina and C. Murcia. 1999. Effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals in dual- purpose cattle farms in the tropics of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Prev. Vet. Med. 38:101-117. crossref(new window)

Coulon, J. B. and B. Remond. 1991. Variations in milk output and milk protein content in response to the level of energy supply to the dairy cow: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 29:31-47. crossref(new window)

Crowe, M. A. 2008. Review article: Resumption of ovarian cyclcity in post-partum beef and dairy cows. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 43:20-28. crossref(new window)

Dann, H. M., D. E. Morin, G. A. Bollero, M. R. Murphy and J. K. Drackley. 2005. Prepartum intake, postpartum induction of ketosis, and periparturient disorders affect the metabolic status of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:3249-3264. crossref(new window)

Davenport, D. G. and A. H. Rakes. 1969. Effects of prepartum feeding level and body condition on the postpartum performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 52:1037-1043. crossref(new window)

Degaris, P. J., I. J. Lean, A. R. Rabiee and C. Heuer. 2008. Effects of increasing days of exposure to prepartum transition diets on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows. Aust. Vet. J. 86:341-351. crossref(new window)

De Vries, M. J. and R. F. Veerkamp. 2000. Energy balance of dairy cattle in relation to milk production variables and fertility. J. Dairy Sci. 83:62-69. crossref(new window)

Domecq, J. J., A. L. Skidmore, J. W. Lloyd and J. B. Kaneene. 1997. Relationship between body condition scores and milk yield in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:101-112. crossref(new window)

Douglas, G. N., T. R. Overton, H. G. Bateman, H. M. Dann and J. K. Drackley. 2006. Prepartal plane of nutrition, regardless of dietary energy source, affects periparturient metabolism and dry matter intake. J. Dairy Sci. 89:2141-2157. crossref(new window)

Drackley, J. K. 1999. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier? J. Dairy Sci. 82:2259-2273. crossref(new window)

Edmonson, A. J., I. J. Lean, L. D. Weaver, T. Farver and G. Webster. 1989. A body condition scoring chart for Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 72:68-78. crossref(new window)

Engelhard, T., A. Meyer and R. Staufenbiel. 2007. Versuch zum Vergleich von ein- und zweiphasiger Trockensteherfutterung. In: Forum angewandte Forschung in der Rinder- und Schweinefutterung. 6-9.

Erb, H. N. and Y. T. Grohn. 1988. Epidemiology of metabolic disorders in the periparturient dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 71:2557-2571. crossref(new window)

Fagan, J. G. and J. F. Roche. 1986. Reproductive activity in postpartum dairy cows based on progesterone concentration in milk or rectal examination. Ir. Vet. J. 40:124-131.

Farries, E. 1983a. Stoffwechselstorungen und ihr EinfluB auf die Zusammensetzung der Milch. Zuchtungskunde 43:265-274.

Farries, E. 1983b. Die Milchzusammensetzung als Hinweis auf Stoffwechselbelastungen und Fortpflanzungsstorungen. Welt der Milch 37:1207-1213.

Ferguson, J. D. and C. J. Sniffen. 1991. Effect of body condition on intake of rations supplemented with fat. J. Dairy Sci. 74(Suppl. 1):277.

Ferguson, J. D. 1996. Diet, production and reproduction in dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 59:173-184. crossref(new window)

Ferris, C. P., F. J. Gordon, D. C. Patterson, C. S. Mayne and D. J. Kilpatrick. 1999. The influence of dairy cow genetic merit on the direct and residual response to level of concentrate supplementation. J. Agric. Sci. 132:467-481. crossref(new window)

Ferris, C. P., F. J. Gordon, D. C. Patterson, C. S. Mayne and D. J. Kilpatrick. 2003. The effect of concentrate feed level on the response of lactating dairy cows to a constant proportion of fodder beet inclusion in a grass- based diet. Grass Forage Sci. 58:17-27. crossref(new window)

Friggens, N. C., D. E. F. Hay and J. D. Oldham. 1993. Interactions between major nutrients in the diet and the lactational performance of rats. Br. J. Nutr. 69:59-71. crossref(new window)

Friggens, N. C., G. C. Emmans, I. Kyriazakis, J. D. Oldham and M. Lewis. 1998. Feed intake relative to stage of lactation for dairy cows consuming total mixed diets with a high or low ration of concentrate to forage. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2228-2239. crossref(new window)

Friggens, N. C., K. L. Ingvartsen and G. C. Emmans. 2004. Prediction of body lipid change in pregnancy and lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 87:988-1000. crossref(new window)

Fronk, T. J., L. H. Schultz and A. R. Hardie. 1980. Effect of dry period overconditioning on subsequent metabolic disorders and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1080-1090. crossref(new window)

Frood, M. J. and D. Croxton. 1978. The use of condition scoring in dairy cows and its relationship with milk yield and live weight. Anim. Prod. 27:285-297. crossref(new window)

Gallo, L., P. Carnier, M. Cassandro, R. Mantovani, L. Bailoni, B. Contiero and G. Bittante. 1996. Change in Body condition score of Holstein cows as affected by parity and mature equivalent milk yield. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1009-1015. crossref(new window)

Gardner, R. W. 1969. Interactions of energy levels offered to Holstein cows prepartum and postpartum. I. Production responses and blood composition changes. J. Dairy Sci. 52:1973-1984. crossref(new window)

Garnsworthy, P. C. and J. H. Topps. 1982. The effect of body condition of dairy cows at calving on their food intake and performance when given complete diets. Anim. Prod. 35:113-119. crossref(new window)

Garnsworthy, P. C. and G. P. Jones. 1987. The influence of body condition at calving and dietary protein supply on voluntary food intake and performance in dairy cows. Anim. Prod. 44:347-352. crossref(new window)

Garnsworthy, P. C. 1988. The effect of energy reserves at calving on performance of dairy cows. In: Nutrition and lactation in the dairy cow (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy). 46th Univ. Nottingham Easter School Agric. Sci., Butterworths, Kent, United Kingdom. pp. 157-170.

Garnsworthy, P. C. and C. D. Hugget. 1992. The influence of the fat concentration of the diet on the response by dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 54:7-13. crossref(new window)

Garnsworthy, P. C. and G. P. Jones. 1993. The effects of dietary fibre and starch concentrations on the response by dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 57:15-21. crossref(new window)

Garnsworthy, P. C. 2007. Body condition score in dairy cows: Target for production and fertility. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition 2006 (Ed. P. C. Garnsworthy and J. Wiseman). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, United Kingdom. pp. 61-86.

Gelfert, C.-C., J.-A. Kupsch and R. Staufenbiel. 2003. Control of energy balance using the alteration of body condition in dairy herd health management. In: ACTA Vet Scan, Proceedings of the 11th International Conf on Prod Diseases in Farm Animals: 195 (Abstr.).

Goff, J. P. and R. L. Horst. 1997. Physiological changes at parturition and their relationships to metabolic disorders. J. Dairy Sci. 80:1260-1268. crossref(new window)

Grieve, D. G., S. Korver, Y. S. Rijpkema and G. Hof. 1986. Relationship between milk composition and some nutritional parameters in early lactation. Livest. Prod. 14:239-254. crossref(new window)

Gruber, L., R. Steinwender and W. Baumgartner. 1995. Einfluss von Grundfutterqualitat und Kraftfutterniveau auf Leistung, Stoffwechsel und Wirtschaftlichkeit von Kuhen der Rasse Fleckvieh und Holstein Frisian. Bericht uber die 22. Tierzuchttagung, BAL Gumpenstein, 9-10. Mai:1-49.

Gruber, L., T. Guggenberger, A. Steinwidder, A. Schauer and J. Hausler. 2003. Effect of stage of lactation and live weight change on regression coefficients of milk yield, NEL content and concentrate level for predicting DMI of dairy cows. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 12:21.

Grum, D. E., J. K. Drackley, R. S. Younker, D. W. La Count and J. J. Veenhuizen. 1996. Nutrition during the dry period and hepatic lipid metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 79:1850-1864. crossref(new window)

Grummer, R. R. 1995. Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the trasition dairy cow. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2820-2833.

Grummer, R. R., P. C. Hoffmann, M. L. Luck and S. L. Bertics. 1995. Effect of prepartum and postpartum dietary energy on growth and lactation of primiparous cows. J. Dairy Sci. 78:172-180. crossref(new window)

Guedon, L., J. Saumande, F. Dupron, C. Couquet and B. Desbals. 1999. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides in postpartum beef cows and their relationship to the resumption of ovulation. Theriogenology 51:1405-1415. crossref(new window)

Guo, J., R. R. Peters and R. A. Kohn. 2007. Effect of a transition diet on production performance and metabolism in periparturient cows. J. Dairy Sci. 90:5247-5258. crossref(new window)

Hady, P. J., J. J. Domecq and J. B. Kaneene. 1994. Frequency and precision of body condition scoring in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1543-1547. crossref(new window)

Harrison, R. O., S. P. Ford, J. W. Young, A. J. Conley and A. E. Freeman. 1990. Increased milk production versus reproductive and energy status of high producing dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2749-2758. crossref(new window)

Hattan, A. J., D. E. Beever, S. B. Cammell and J. D. Sutton. 2001. Energy metabolism in high yielding dairy cows during early lactation. In: Energy metabolism in animals, EAAP publication No. 103:325-328.

Hawkins, D. E., K. D. Niswender, G. M. Oss, C. L. Moeller, K. G. Odde, H. R. Sawyer and G. D. Niswender. 1995. An increase in serum lipids increases luteal lipid content and alters the disappearance rate of progesterone in cows. J. Anim. Sci. 73:541-545.

Holcomb, C. S., H. H. Van Horn, H. H. Head, M. B. Hall and C. J. Wilcox. 2001. Effects of prepartum dry matter intake and forage percentage on postpartum performance of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2051-2058. crossref(new window)

Holtenius, K., S. Agenas, C. Delavaud and Y. Chilliard. 2003. Effects of feeding intensity during the dry period. 2. Metabolic and hormonal responses. J. Dairy Sci. 86:883-891. crossref(new window)

Holter, J. B., M. J. Slotnick, H. H. Hayes, C. K. Bozak, W. E. Urban Jr. and M. L. McGillard. 1990. Effect of prepartum dietary energy on condition score, postpartum energy, nitrogen partitions, and lactation production responses. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3502-3511. crossref(new window)

Houghton, P. L., R. P. Lemenager, L. A. Horstmann, K. S. Hendrix and G. E. Moss. 1990a. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy level and early weaning on reproductive performance of beef cows and preweaning calf gain. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1438-1446.

Houghton, P. L., R. P. Lemenager, K. S. Hendrix, G. E. Moss and T. S. Stewart. 1990b. Effects of body composition, pre- and postpartum energy intake and stage of production of energy utilization by beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1447-1456.

Huszenicza, G., S. Fekete, L. Molnar, J. Haraszti and L. Solti. 1987. Influence of the body condition, body mass change and different levels of energy intake on the postpartal ovarian activity of beef cows. Acta. Vet. Hung. 35:359-372.

Imakawa, K., M. L. Day, D. D. Zalesky, A. Clutter, R. J. Kittock and J. E. Kinder. 1987. Effects of 17beta-estradiol and diets varying in energy on secretion of luteinizing hormone in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 64:805.

Ingvartsen, K. L. and J. B. Andersen. 2000. Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: A review focusing on periparturient animals. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1573-1597. crossref(new window)

Janicek, B. N., P. J. Kononoff, A. M. Gehmann, K. Karges and M. L. Gibson. 2007. Short communication: Effect of increasing levels of corn bran on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci. 90:4313-4316. crossref(new window)

Johnson, D. G. and D. E. Otterby. 1981. Influence of dry period diet on early postpartum health, feed intake, milk production, and reproductive efficiency of Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 64:290-295. crossref(new window)

Johnson, C. L. 1984. The effect of feeding in early lactation on feed intake, yields of milk, fat and protein and on the liveweight change over one lactation in dairy cows. J. Agric. Sci. 103:629-638. crossref(new window)

Jones, G. P. and P. C. Garnsworthy. 1989. The effects of dietary energy content on the response of dairy cows to body condition at calving. Anim. Prod. 49:183-189. crossref(new window)

Kanitz, W., F. Becker, G. Dietl, N. Reinsch and R. Staufenbiel. 2003. Beziehungen zwischen Milchleistung, Energieversorgung und Fruchtbarkeit unter den Bedingungen von Hochleistung beim Rind. Zuchtungskunde 75:489-498.

Kappel, L. C., R. H. Ingraham, E. B. Morgan, L. Zeringue, D. Wilson and D. K. Babcock. 1984. Relationship between fertility and blood glucose and cholesterol concnetrations in Holstein cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:2607-2612.

Kaufmann, T. E. G., M. Kirchgessner and H. L. Muller. 1987. Energiebilanz und Energieverwertung bei der Milchkuh wahrend und nach energetischer Uberversorgung. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 58:75-88. crossref(new window)

Keady, T. W. J. and C. S. Mayne, D. J. Kilpatrick and M. A. McCoy. 2005. Effect of level and source of nutrients in late gestation on subsequent milk yield and composition and fertility of dairy cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 94:237-248. crossref(new window)

Kim, I. H. and G. H. Suh. 2003. Effect of the amount of body condition loss from the dry to near calving periods on the subsequent body condition change, occurance of postpartum diseases, metabolic parameters and reproductive performance in Holstein dairy cows. Theriogenology 60:1445-1456. crossref(new window)

Klawuhn, D. and R. Staufenbiel. 1997. Aussagekraft der Ruckenfettdicke zum Korperfettgehalt beim Rind. Tierarztl. Praxis 25:133-138.