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Replacing Concentrate with Wheat Straw Treated with Urea Molasses and Ensiled with Manure: Effects on Ruminal Characteristics, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Nitrogen Metabolism of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls
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 Title & Authors
Replacing Concentrate with Wheat Straw Treated with Urea Molasses and Ensiled with Manure: Effects on Ruminal Characteristics, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Nitrogen Metabolism of Nili-Ravi Buffalo Bulls
Hassan, Z.; Nisa, M.; Shahzad, M.A.; Sarwar, M.;
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To evaluate the effects of replacing concentrate with urea molasses treated fermented wheat straw (FWS) ensiled with cattle manure (CM) on ruminal characteristics, in situ digestion kinetics and nitrogen (N) metabolism was studied in Nili Ravi cannulated buffalo bulls in a Latin Square Design. Wheat straw treated with urea (4%) and molasses (6%) was ensiled with cattle manure (CM) (70:30) and fermented for 40 days. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. In the FWS0, FWS10, FWS20 and FWS30 diets 0, 10, 20 and 30% of the concentrate was replaced with FWS, respectively. Daily intake by bulls was restricted to 1.5% dry matter (DM) of body weight. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration was greater (p<0.05) in bulls fed FWS diet than for those fed FWS0 diet at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h post-parandial. Bulls fed FWS 20 and FWS 30 diets had higher ruminal pH at 3 and 6 h post-parandial than bulls fed FWS10 and FWS0. Ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations 3 h post-parandial were greater (p<0.05) in bulls fed FWS0 than those fed FWS diets. However ruminal VFA tended to increase at 6, 9 and 12 h post-parandial as the level of FWS increased. In situ ruminal DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation, rates of disappearance and extent of digestion were higher (p<0.05) for bulls fed FWS30 diet than those fed FWS0. Ruminal DM and NDF lag time tended to decrease (p<0.05) as FWS concentration in the diet increased. Feed intake, nitrogen intake, N-balance and blood urea-N did not differ (p>0.05) in buffalo bulls fed different diets. Wheat straw treated with urea and molasses and ensiled with CM enhanced the nutritive value of wheat straw and improved nutrient utilization in buffalo bulls when up to 30% of the concentrate was replaced with FWS; no adverse effects on ruminal characteristics and nutrients digestibilities were detected.
Wheat Straw;Cattle Manure;Ruminal Characteristics;Nitrogen Balance;Buffalo Bulls;
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