JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves
Nejad, J. Ghassemi; Torbatinejad, N.; Naserian, A.A.; Kumar, S.; Kim, J.D.; Song, Y.H.; Ra, C.S.; Sung, K.I.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
In order to investigate the effect of physical forms of starter diets on performance, weaning age, nutrient digestibility and rumen biochemical factors, 24 female of neonatal Brown Swiss calves (average body weight of ) were randomly assigned to three treatments. Dietary treatments were mashed (MS), pelleted (PS), and texturized (TS) starter using 8 calves from birth till 90 days of age in each treatment. Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous with 21% crude protein. Based on the experimental results, calves that received PS and TS diets, had significant higher average daily gain (ADG) than those receiving MS (p<0.01). Dry matter intake in calves fed PS and TS was greater than calves fed MS (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference in feed efficiency. Treatments had no effect on initiation of rumination. Weaning age of calves in MS was longer than the other two treatments (p<0.05). Crude protein and organic matter digestibility in MS treated calves were lower than other treatments (p<0.05). No differences were observed in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ash digestibility among treatments (p>0.05). Ruminal pH was higher (p<0.01) in MS than the other groups, but ruminal ammonia (g/dl) concentration was not different among the treatments. Body measurements such as body length, pin width, hip width, pin to hip length, size of metacarpus and metatarsus bones, hip height, wither height, stomach size and heart girth were not significantly different among the treatments. Overall, it is concluded that starter diets in the form of pellet and texture can improve performance in neonatal Brown Swiss calves compared to the mashed form.
 Keywords
Brown Swiss Calves;Mash;Processing;Pellet;Starter Diet;Texture;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Abdelgadir, I. E. O. and J. L. Morrill. 1995. Effect of processing sorghum grain on dairy calf performance. J. Dairy Sci. 78:2040-2046. crossref(new window)

2.
Aldrich, J. M., L. D. Muller, G. A. Varga and L. C. Griel Jr. 1993. Nonstructural carbohydrate and protein effects on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow, and performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1091-1105. crossref(new window)

3.
Anderson, M. J., M. Khoyloo and J. L. Walters. 1982. Effect of feeding whole cottonseed on intake, body weight, and reticulorumen development of young Holstein calves. J. Dairy Sci. 65:764-772. crossref(new window)

4.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1990. 13th edition. Pubic. By AOAC, P.O.B. Box 54, Washington, DC, USA.

5.
Bach, A., A. Gimenez, J. L. Juaristi and J. Ahedo. 2007. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance. J. Dairy Sci. 90:3028-3033. crossref(new window)

6.
Bateman, H. G., T. M. Hill, J. M. Aldrich and R. L. Schlotterbeck. 2009. Effects of corn processing, particle size, and diet form on performance of calves in bedded pens. J. Dairy Sci. 92:782-789. crossref(new window)

7.
Beauchemin, K. A., W. Z., Yang and L. M. Rode. 2001. Effects of barley grain processing on the site and extent of digestion of beef feedlot finishing diets. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1925-1936.

8.
Beharka, A. A., T. G. Nagaraja, J. L. Morrill, G. A. Kennedy and R. D. Klemm. 1998. Effects of form of the diet on anatomical, microbial, and fermentative development of the rumen of neonatal calves. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1946-1955. crossref(new window)

9.
Bradshow, W. L., D. D. Hinman, R. C. Bull, D. O. Everson and S. J. Sorensen. 1996. Effects of barley variety and processing methods on feedlot steer performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 74:18-24.

10.
Bull, L. S., L. J. Bush, J. D. Friend, B. Harris Jr. and E. W. Jones. 1965. Incidence of ruminal parakeratosis in calves fed different rations and its relation to volatile fatty acid absorption. J. Dairy Sci. 48:1459-1466. crossref(new window)

11.
Chester-Jones, H. and D. M. Ziegler. 1994. Feeding whole or rolled corn with pelleted supplement to Holstein steers from weaning to 190 Kilograms. J. Dairy Sci. 74:1765-1771.

12.
Church, D. C. 1986. Livestock feeds and feeding, second edition, Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. p. 549.

13.
Coverdale, J. A., H. D. Tyler, J. D. Quigley and J. A. Brumm. 2004. Effect of various levels of forage and form of diet on rumen development and growth in calves. J. Dairy Sci. 87:2554-2562. crossref(new window)

14.
Crocker, L. M., E. J. DePeters, J. G. Fadel, H. Perez-Monti, S. J. Taylor, J. A. Wyckoff and R. A. Zinn. 1998. Influence of processed corn grain in diets of dairy cows on digestion of nutrients and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 81:2394-2407. crossref(new window)

15.
Franklin, S. T., D. M. Amaral-Phillips, J. A. Jackson and A. A. Campbell. 2003. Health and performance of Holstein calves that suckled or were hand-fed colostrum and were fed one of three physical forms of starter. J. Dairy Sci. 86:2145-2150. crossref(new window)

16.
Gardner, R. W. 1967. Acceptability and nutritional response comparisons between calf starters. J. Dairy Sci. 50:729-734. crossref(new window)

17.
Grimson, R. E., R. D. Wiesenberger, J. A. Basarab and R. P. Stillborn. 1987. Effects of barley volume weight and processing method on feedlot performance of finishing steers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:43-53. crossref(new window)

18.
Hibbs, J. W., H. R. Conrad, W. D. Pounden and N. Frank. 1956. Ahigh roughage system for raising calves based on early development of rumen function. VI. Influence of hay to grain ration on calf performance, rumen development, and certain blood changes. J. Dairy Sci. 39:171-179. crossref(new window)

19.
Hinders, R. G. and F. G. Owen. 1965. Relation of ruminal parakeratosis development to volatile fatty acid absorption. J. Dairy Sci. 48:1069-1073. crossref(new window)

20.
Joy, M. T., E. J. DePeters, J. G. Fadel and R. A. Zinn. 1997. Effects of corn processing on the site and extent of digestion in lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 80:2087-2097. crossref(new window)

21.
Kertz, A. F. 2007. Letter to the editor: Pelleted calf starter with straw access can confound results: A comment on Bach et al. (2007). J. Dairy Sci. 90:4924. crossref(new window)

22.
Kertz, A. F., L. R. Prewitt and J. P. Everett Jr. 1979. An early weaning calf program: Summarization and review. J. Dairy Sci. 62:1835-1843. crossref(new window)

23.
Kincaid, R. L. 1980. Alternate methods of feeding alfalfa to calves. J. Dairy Sci. 63:91-94. crossref(new window)

24.
Knowlton, K. F., B. P. Glenn and R. A. Erdman. 1998. Performance, ruminal fermentation, and site of starch digestion in early lactation cows fed corn grain harvested and processed differently. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1972-1984. crossref(new window)

25.
Lassiter, C. A., T. W. Denton, L. D. Brown and J. W. Rust. 1955. The nutritional merits of pelleting calf starters. J. Dairy Sci. 38:1242-1245. crossref(new window)

26.
Leibholz, J. 1975. Ground roughage in the diet of the early-weaned calf. Anim. Prod. 20:93-100. crossref(new window)

27.
Lesmeister, K. B. and A. J. Heinrichs. 2005. Effects of adding extra molasses to a texturized calf starter on rumen development, growth characteristics, and blood parameters in neonatal dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci. 88:411-418. crossref(new window)

28.
Mathison, G. W., R. Hironka, B. K. Kerrigan, I. Vlach, I. P. Milligan and R. D. Weisengurger. 1997. Rate of starch degradation, apparent digestibility and rate and efficiency of steer gain as influenced by barley grain volume weight and processing method. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 71:867-878.

29.
Murphy, T. A., F. L. Fluharty and S. C. Loerch. 1994. The influence of intake level andcorn processing on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in steers fed allconcentrate diets. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1608-1615.

30.
Owen, F. G. and L. L. Larson. 1986. Effect of probiocin and starter preparation on calf performance. Coop. Ext. Ser. Univ. Nebr. 1986:36-37.

31.
Porter, J. C., R. G. Warner and A. F. Kertz. 2007. Effect of fiber level and physical form of starter on growth and development of dairy calves fed no forage. Prof. Anim. Sci. 23:395-400.

32.
Rooney, L. W. and R. L. Pflugfelder. 1986. Factors affecting starch digestibility with special emphasis on sorghum and corn. J. Anim. Sci. 63:1607-1623.

33.
Russell, J. B., C. J. Sniffen and P. J. Van Soest. 1983. Effects of carbohydrate limitation on degradation and utilization of casein by mixed rumen bacteria. J. Dairy Sci. 66:763-775. crossref(new window)

34.
Samanta, A. K., K. K. Singh, M. M. Das, S. B. Maity and S. S. Kundu. 2003. Effect of complete feed block on nutrient, utilization and rumen fermentation in Barbari goats. Small Rumin. Res. 48:95-102. crossref(new window)

35.
SAS. 1999. SAS/STAT user's guide (Version 8.01 Edition). SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC, USA.

36.
Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods (6th Ed.). Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames.

37.
Stobo, I. J. F., C. S. Lucci, J. H. B. Roy and M. W. Perfitt. 1985. Comparison of high-energy pellets containing processed fibre with a coarse concentrate mixture in relation to the development of solid food intake in the calf. Anim. Prod. 40:570.

38.
Thomas, D. B. and C. E. Hinks. 1982. The effect of changing the physical form of roughage on the performance of the early-weaned calf. J. Anim. Prod. 35:375-384. crossref(new window)

39.
Warner, R. G. 1991. Nutritional factors affecting the development of a functional ruminant-A historical perspective. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf., 1-12. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.

40.
Warner, R. G., J. C. Proter and S. T. Slack. 1973. Calf starter formulation for neonatal calves fed no hay. Proc. Cornell Nutr. Cornell University, Ithaca.

41.
Whitaker, R. T., W. J. Miller, J. L. Carmon and H. L. Dalton. 1957. Influence of level and source of crude fiber in calf starters on weight and feed consumption. J. Dairy Sci. 40:887-892. crossref(new window)

42.
Yu, P., J. T. Huber, F. A. P. Santos, J. M. Simas and C. B. Theurer. 1998. Effects of ground, steam-flaked, and steam-rolled corn grains on performance of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:777-783. crossref(new window)