JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Adding Super Dose Phytase to the Phosphorus-deficient Diets of Young Pigs on Growth Performance, Bone Quality, Minerals and Amino Acids Digestibilities
Zeng, Z.K.; Wang, D.; Piao, X.S.; Li, P.F.; Zhang, H.Y.; Shi, C.X.; Yu, S.K.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding an Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived phytase to pigs fed P deficient, corn-soybean meal diets. In Exp. 1, one hundred and twenty crossbred piglets ( kg) were allocated to one of five treatments which consisted of four low P diets (0.61% Ca, 0.46% total P and 0.24% non-phytate P) supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 20,000 FTU/kg E. coli phytase as well as a positive control formulated to be adequate in all nutrients (0.77% Ca, 0.62% total P and 0.42% non-phytate P). The treatments were applied to six pens with four pigs per pen for 28 days. In Exp. 2, ten crossbred pigs ( kg) fitted with ileal T-cannula were used in a nutrient balance study. The pigs were assigned to treatments similar to those used in Exp. 1 in a doubly replicated incomplete Latin square design (5 diets with 4 periods). Each period consisted of a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine and then a 2-d collection of ileal digesta. Supplementation with phytase linearly increased (p<0.05) weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, bone breaking strength and fat-free dry and ash bone weight. There were linear increases (p<0.01) in the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of DM, GE, CP, Ca, total P, inositol hexaphosphate () and some AA with increasing dose of E. coli phytase. Pigs fed 20,000 FTU/kg had a greater (p<0.05) AID of IP6 (80% vs 59% or 64%, respectively) than pigs fed diets with 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg phytase. There were linear increases (p<0.05) in the total tract digestibility of Ca, total P, Na, K, Mg, and Zn as well as in the retention of Mg and Zn with increased phytase dose. The retention and utilization of Cu, and the total tract digestibility of CP and Cu quadratic increased (p<0.05) with increased phytase dose. In conclusion, supplementation of 500 FTU of phytase/kg and above effectively hydrolyzed phytate in low-P corn-soybean diets for pigs. In addition, a super dose of phytase (20,000 FTU/kg) hydrolyzed most of the IP6 and consequently further improved mineral use, protein utilization and performance.
 Keywords
Phytase;Utilization;Bone Quality;AA;Minerals;Performance;Pigs;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Super High Dosing with a Novel Buttiauxella Phytase Continuously Improves Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Mineral Status of Weaned Pigs, Biological Trace Element Research, 2015, 168, 1, 103  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects, Bioengineered, 2015, 6, 4, 233  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Effects of exogenous phytase and xylanase, individually or in combination, and pelleting on nutrient digestibility, available energy content of wheat and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2016, 30, 1, 57  crossref(new windwow)
4.
Microbial production of phytases for combating environmental phosphate pollution and other diverse applications, Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 2016, 46, 6, 556  crossref(new windwow)
5.
Effect of superdosing phytase on productive performance and egg quality in laying hens, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2017, 30, 7, 994  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Adeola, O., B. V. Lawrence, A. L. Sutton, and T. R. Cline. 1995. Phytase-induced changes in mineral utilization in zinc-supplemented diets for pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3384-3391.

2.
Adeola, O. 1999. Nutrient management procedures to enhance environmental conditions: An introduction. J. Anim. Sci. 77:427-429.

3.
Adeola, O. and J. S. Sands. 2003. Does supplemental dietary microbial phytase improve amino acid utilization? A perspective that it does not. J. Anim. Sci. 81(E Suppl. 2):E78-E85.

4.
AOAC. 2000. Official methods of analysis, 17th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington. VA.

5.
Augspurger, N. R. and D. H. Baker. 2004. High dietary phytase levels maximize phytate- phosphorus utilization but do not affect protein utilization in chicks fed phosphorus- or amino acid-deficient diets. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1100-1107.

6.
Cowieson, A. J., T. Acamovic, and M. R. Bedford. 2004. The effects of phytase and phytic acid on the loss of endogenous AA and minerals from broiler chickens. Br. Poult. Sci. 45:101-108. crossref(new window)

7.
Engelen, A. J., F. C. van der Heeft, P. H. Randsdorp, W. A. Somers, J. Schaefer, and B. J. van der Vat. 2001. Determination of phytase activity in feed by a colorimetric enzymatic method: Collaborative inter-laboratory study. J. AOAC. Int. 84:629-633.

8.
Feeding Standard of Swine. 2004. China Agriculture Press. Beijing. China.

9.
Gagne, F., J. J. Matte, G. Barnett, and C. Pomar. 2002. The effect of microbial phytase and feed restriction on protein, fat and ash deposition of growing-finishing pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 82:551-558. crossref(new window)

10.
Hong, W. J., I. H. Kim, O. S. Kwon, S. H. Lee, H. D. Bae, S. J. Kang, and U. M. Yang. 2001. Effects of phytezyme supplementation on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14:1440-1443. crossref(new window)

11.
Jendza, J. A., R. N. Dilger, S. A. Adedokun, J. S. Sands, and O. Adeola. 2005. Escherichia coli phytase improves growth performance of starter, grower, and finisher pigs fed phosphorus-deficient diets. J. Anim. Sci. 83:1882-1889.

12.
Kies, A. K., K. H. F van Hemert, and W. C. Sauer. 2001. Effect of phytase on protein and amino acid digestibility and energy utilization. World's Poult. Sci. J. 57:109-126. crossref(new window)

13.
Kies, A. K., W. J. J. Gerrits, J. W. Schrama, M. J. W. Heetkamp, K. L. van der Linden, T. Zandstra, and M. W. A. Verstegen. 2005. Mineral absorption and excretion as affected by microbial phytase, and their effect on energy metabolism in young piglets. J. Nutr. 135:1131-1138.

14.
Kies, A. K., P. A. Kemme, L. B. J. Sebek, J. Th. M. van Diepen, and A. W. Jongbloed. 2006. Effect of graded doses and a high dose of microbial phytase on the digestibility of various minerals in weaner pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1169-1175.

15.
Kornegay, E. T. 2001. Digestion of phosphorus and other nutrients: The role of phytases and factors influencing their activity. Pages 237-271 in Enzymes in Farm Animal Nutrition (Ed. M. R. Bedford and G. G. Partridge). CABI Publ., Wallingford, UK.

16.
Liao, S. F., A. K. Kies, W. C. Sauer, Y. C. Zhang, M. Cervantes, and J. M. He. 2005. Effect of phytase supplementation to a low- and a high-phytate diet for growing pigs on the digestibilities of crude protein, amino acids, and energy. J. Anim. Sci. 83:2130-2136.

17.
Luttrell, B. M. 1993. The biological relevance of the binding of calcium ions by inositol phosphates. J. Biol. Chem. 268:1521-1524.

18.
NRC. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine (10th Rev. Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

19.
Metzler, B. U., R. Mosenthin, T. Baumgartel, and M. Rodehutscord. 2008. The effect of dietary phosphorus and calcium level, phytase supplementation, and ileal infusion of pectin on the chemical composition and carbohydrase activity of fecal bacteria and the level of microbial metabolites in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 86:1544-1555. crossref(new window)

20.
Metzler, B. U., W. Vahjen, T. Baumgartel, M. Rodehutscord, and R. Mosenthin. 2010. Ileal microbiota of growing pigs fed different dietary calcium phosphate levels and phytase content and subjected to ileal pectin infusion. J. Anim. Sci. 88:147-158. crossref(new window)

21.
Pallauf, J., D. Hohler, and G. Rimbach. 1992. Effect of microbial phytase supplementation to a maize-soya diet on the apparent absorption of Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn and parameters of Zn-status in piglets. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 68:1-9. crossref(new window)

22.
Persson, H., M. Turk. M. Nyman, and A. S. Sandberg. 1998. Binding of $Cu^{2+}$, $Zn^{2+}$, and $Cd^{2+}$ to inositol tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexaphosphates. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:3194-3200. crossref(new window)

23.
Selle, P. H., A. J. Cowieson, and V. Ravindran. 2009. Consequences of calcium interactions with phytate and phytase for poultry and pigs. Livest. Sci. 124:126-141. crossref(new window)

24.
Selle, P. H. and V. Ravindran. 2008. Phytate-degrading enzymes in pig nutrition. Livest. Sci. 113:99-122. crossref(new window)

25.
Selle, P. H., V. Ravindran, G. Ravindran, and W. L. Bryden. 2007. Effects of dietary lysine and microbial phytase on growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broiler chickens. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20:1100-1107. crossref(new window)

26.
Selle, P. H., V. Ravindran, R. A. Caldwell, and W. L. Bryden. 2000. Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilization. Nutr. Res. Rev. 13:255-278. crossref(new window)

27.
Song, G. L., D. F. Li, X. S. Piao, F. Chi, and W. J. Yang. 2003. Apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids and the digestible and metabolizable energy content of high-oil corn varieties and its effects on growth performance of pigs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 57:297-306. crossref(new window)

28.
Shirley, R. B. and H. M. Edwards. 2003. Graded levels of phytase past industry standards improves broiler performance. Poult. Sci. 82:671-680. crossref(new window)

29.
Stein, H. H., C. F. Shipley, and R. A. Easter. 1998. Technical note: A technique for inserting a T-cannula into the distal ileum of pregnant sows. J. Anim. Sci. 76:1433-1436.

30.
Tran, T. T., R. Hatti-Kaul, S. Dalsgaard, and S. K. Yu. 2011. A simple and fast kinetic assay for phytases using phytic acid-protein complex as substrate. Anal. Biochem. 410:177-184. crossref(new window)

31.
Veum, T. L., D. W. Bollinger, C. E. Buff, and M. R. Bedford. 2006. A genetically engineered Escherichia coli phytase improves nutrient utilization, growth performance, and bone strength of young swine fed diets deficient in available phosphorus. J. Anim. Sci. 84:1147-1156.

32.
Wang, D., Z. K. Zeng, X. S. Piao, P. F. Li, L. F. Xue, Q. Zhang, X. Han, H. Y. Zhang, B. Dong, and S. W. Kim. 2011. Effects of keratinase supplementation of corn-soybean meal based diets on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and weight gain, serum amino acids, cytokines, immunoglobulin levels and loin muscle area in nursery pigs. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 65:290-302. crossref(new window)

33.
Woyengo, T. A., J. C. Rodriguez-Lecompte, O. Adeola, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2011. Histomorphology and small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 gene expression in piglets fed phytic acid and phytase-supplemented diets. J. Anim. Sci. 89:2485-2490. crossref(new window)

34.
Woyengo, T. A., O. Adeola, C. C. Udenigwe, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2010. Gastro-intestinal digesta pH, pepsin activity and soluble mineral concentration responses to supplemental phytic acid and phytase in piglets. Livest. Sci. 134:91-93. crossref(new window)

35.
Woyengo, T. A., A. J. Cowieson, O. Adeola, and C. M. Nyachoti. 2009. Ileal digestibility and endogenous losses of nutrients responses to dietary phytic acid in piglets. Br. J. Nutr. 102:428-433. crossref(new window)

36.
Yu, S., A. Cowieson, C. Gilbert, P. Plumstead, and S. Dalsgaard. 2012. Interactions of phytate and myo-inositol phosphate esters (IP1-5) including IP5 isomers with dietary protein and iron and inhibition of pepsin. J. Anim. Sci. 90:1824-1832. crossref(new window)

37.
Zeng, Z. K., X. S. Piao, D. Wang, P. F. Li, L. F. Xue, and L. Salmon. 2011. Effect of microbial phytase on performance, nutrient absorption and excretion in weaned pigs and apparent ileal nutrient digestibility in growing pigs. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 24:1164-1172. crossref(new window)