Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Physiological Roles of Adipokines, Hepatokines, and Myokines in Ruminants
Roh, Sang-Gun; Suzuki, Yutaka; Gotoh, Takafumi; Tatsumi, Ryuichi; Katoh, Kazuo;
  PDF(new window)
Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening (marbling) periods. Thus, understanding these hormones is important for improving nutritional management in dairy cows and beef cattle. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews of the characteristics of these cytokines in beef and dairy products in ruminants. In particular, lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue, liver tissue, and muscle tissue are very important for energy storage, production, and synthesis, which are regulated by these cytokines in ruminant production. In this review, we summarize the physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. This discussion provides a foundation for understanding the role of cytokines in animal production of ruminants.
 Cited by
Anti-obese effect of iodine-enriched yolk in cultured adipocytes, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho, 2016, 87, 4, 345  crossref(new windwow)
Limits on hogget lambing: the fertility of the young ewe, New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 2017, 60, 1, 1  crossref(new windwow)
High non-esterified fatty acid concentrations promote expression and secretion of fibroblast growth factor 21 in calf hepatocytes cultured in vitro, Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 2017, 09312439  crossref(new windwow)
Aggarwal, B. B. 2003. Signalling pathways of the TNF superfamily: A double-edged sword. Nat. Rev. Immunol 3: 745-756. crossref(new window)

Allen, R. E., S. M. Sheehan, R. G. Taylor, T. L. Kendall, and G. M. Rice. 1995. Hepatocyte growth factor activates quiescent skeletal muscle satellite cells in vitro. J Cell Physiol. 165:307-312. crossref(new window)

Auberger, P., L. Falquerho, J. O. Contreres, G. Pages, G. Le Cam, B. Rossi, and A. Le Cam. 1989. Characterization of a natural inhibitor of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase: cDNA cloning, purification, and anti-mitogenic activity. Cell 58:631-640. crossref(new window)

Baggiolini, M. 2001. Chemokines in pathology and medicine. J. Int. Med. 250:91-104. crossref(new window)

Baik, M., T. T. Vu, M. Y. Piao, and H. J. Kang. 2014. Association of DNA methylation levels with tissue-specific expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in longissimus dorsi muscle of Korean cattle. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 27:1493-1498. crossref(new window)

Bartoccioni, E., D. Michaelis, and R. Hohlfeld. 1994. Constitutive and cytokine-induced production of interleukin-6 by human myoblasts. Immunol. Lett. 42:135-138. crossref(new window)

Belk, K. E., J. D. Tatum, and F. L. Williams, Jr. 1991. Deposition and distribution of carcass fat for steers differing in frame size and muscle thickness. J. Anim. Sci. 69:609-616. crossref(new window)

Bell, A. W. 1995. Regulation of organic nutrient metabolism during transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2804-2819. crossref(new window)

Berg, A. H., T. P. Combs, X. Du, M. Brownlee, and P. E. Scherer. 2001. The adipocyte-secreted protein Acrp30 enhances hepatic insulin action. Nat. Med. 7:947-953. crossref(new window)

Bishop, M. D., R. C. M. Simmen, F. A. Simmen, and M. E. Davis. 1989. The relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I with postweaning performance in Angus beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2872-2880. crossref(new window)

Bobe, G., J. W. Young, and D. C. Beitz. 2004. Invited review: Pathology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of fatty liver in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:3105-3124. crossref(new window)

Bostrom, P., J. Wu, M. P. Jedrychowski, A. Korde, L. Ye, J. C. Lo, K. A. Rasbach, E. A. Bostrom, J. H. Choi, and J. Z. Long et al. 2012. A PGC1-[agr]-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis. Nature 481:463-468. crossref(new window)

Bozaoglu, K., K. Bolton, J. McMillan, P. Zimmet, J. Jowett, G. Collier, K. Walder, and D. Segal. 2007. Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Endocrinology 148:4687-4694. crossref(new window)

Bozaoglu, K., D. Segal, K. A. Shields, N. Cummings, J. E. Curran, A. G. Comuzzie, M. C. Mahaney, D. L. Rainwater, J. L. VandeBerg, J. W. MacCluer, G. Collier, J. Blangero, K. Walder, and J. B. Jowett. 2009. Chemerin is associated with metabolic syndrome phenotypes in a Mexican-American population. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94:3085-3088. crossref(new window)

Brakenhielm, E., R. Cao, B. Gao, B. Angelin, B. Cannon, P. Parini, and Y. Cao. 2004. Angiogenesis inhibitor, TNP-470, prevents diet-induced and genetic obesity in mice. Circ. Res. 94:1579-1588. crossref(new window)

Bruun, J. M., S. B. Pedersen, K. Kristensen, and B. Richelsen. 2002. Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines on leptin production in human adipose tissue in vitro. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 190:91-99. crossref(new window)

Bruunsgaard, H. 1997. Exercise-induced increase in interleukin-6 is related to muscle damage. J. Physiol.(Lond) 499(Pt 3):833-841. crossref(new window)

Bub, J. D., T. Miyazaki, and Y. Iwamoto. 2006. Adiponectin as a growth inhibitor in prostate cancer cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 340:1158-1166. crossref(new window)

Burk, R. F. and K. E. Hill. 2005. Selenoprotein P: An extracellular protein with unique physical characteristics and a role in selenium homeostasis. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 25:215-235. crossref(new window)

Carlson, B. A., S. V. Novoselov, E. Kumaraswamy, B. J. Lee, M. R. Anver, V. N. Gladyshev, and D. L. Hatfield. 2004. Specific excision of the selenocysteine tRNA[Ser]Sec (Trsp) gene in mouse liver demonstrates an essential role of selenoproteins in liver function. J. Biol. Chem. 279:8011-8017. crossref(new window)

Cawthorn, W. P. and J. K. Sethi. 2008. TNF-alpha and adipocyte biology. FEBS Lett. 582:117-131. crossref(new window)

Charge, S. B. and M. A. Rudnicki. 2004. Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration. Physiol. Rev. 84:209-238. crossref(new window)

Choi, S. H., S. K. Park, B. J. Johnson, K. Y. Chung, C. W. Choi, K. H. Kim, W. Y. Kim, and B. Smith. 2015. AMPKalpha, C/EBPbeta, CPT1beta, GPR43, PPARgamma, and SCD gene expression in single- and co-cultured bovine satellite cells and intramuscular preadipocytes treated with palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:411-419. crossref(new window)

Copray, S., R. Liem, N. Brouwer, P. Greenhaff, F. Habens, and P. Fernyhough. 2000. Contraction-induced muscle fiber damage is increased in soleus muscle of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and is associated with elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in muscle fibers and activated satellite cells. Exp. Neurol. 161:597-608. crossref(new window)

Cox, A. R., C. J. Lam, C. W. Bonnyman, J. Chavez, J. S. Rios, and J. A. Kushner. 2015. Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8)/betatrophin overexpression does not increase beta cell proliferation in mice. Diabetologia 58:1523-1531. crossref(new window)

Daniel, J. A., T. H. Elsasser, C. D. Morrison, D. H. Keisler, B. K. Whitlock, B. Steele, D. Pugh, and J. L. Sartin. 2003. Leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and CD14 in ovine adipose tissue and changes in circulating TNF in lean and fat sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 81:2590-2599. crossref(new window)

De Cesaris, P., D. Starace, A. Riccioli, F. Padula, A. Filippini, and E. Ziparo. 1998. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces interleukin-6 production and integrin ligand expression by distinct transduction pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 273:7566-7571. crossref(new window)

De Rossi, M., P. Bernasconi, F. Baggi, R. De Waal Malefyt, and R. Mantegazza. 2000. Cytokines and chemokines are both expressed by human myoblasts: possible relevance for the immune pathogenesis of muscle inflammation. Int. Immunol. 12:1329-1335. crossref(new window)

Delavaud, C., F. Bocquier, Y. Chilliard, D. H. Keisler, A. Gertler, and G. Kann. 2000. Plasma leptin determination in ruminants: effect of nutritional status and body fatness on plasma leptin concentration assessed by a specific RIA in sheep. J Endocrinol. 165:519-526. crossref(new window)

Deng, Y., H. Wang, Y. Lu, S. Liu, Q. Zhang, J. Huang, R. Zhu, J. Yang, R. Zhang, D. Zhang, W. Shen, G. Ning, and Y. Yang. 2013. Identification of chemerin as a novel FXR target gene down-regulated in the progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Endocrinology 154:1794-1801. crossref(new window)

Do, M.-K. Q., Y. Sato, N. Shimizu, T. Suzuki, J. Shono, W. Mizunoya, M. Nakamura, Y. Ikeuchi, J. E. Anderson, and R. Tatsumi. 2011. Growth factor regulation of neural chemorepellent Sema3A expression in satellite cell cultures. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 301:C1270-C1279. crossref(new window)

Docke, S., J. F. Lock, A. L. Birkenfeld, S. Hoppe, S. Lieske, A. Rieger, N. Raschzok, I. M. Sauer, S. Florian, and M. A. Osterhoff et al. 2013. Elevated hepatic chemerin mRNA expression in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Eur. J. Endocrinol. 169:547-557. crossref(new window)

Doroudgar, S. and C. C. Glembotski. 2011. The cardiokine story unfolds: Ischemic stress-induced protein secretion in the heart. Trends Mol. Med. 17:207-214. crossref(new window)

Drackley, J. K., T. R. Overton, and G. N. Douglas. 2001. Adaptations of glucose and long-chain fatty acid metabolism in liver of dairy cows during the periparturient period. J. Dairy Sci. 84:E100-E112. crossref(new window)

Ellingsgaard, H., I. Hauselmann, B. Schuler, A. M. Habib, L. L. Baggio, D. T. Meier, E. Eppler, K. Bouzakri, S. Wueest, and Y. D. Muller et al. 2011. Interleukin-6 enhances insulin secretion by increasing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from L cells and alpha cells. Nat. Med. 17:1481-1489. crossref(new window)

Fawcett, R. L., A. S. Waechter, L. B. Williams, P. Zhang, R. Louie, R. Jones, M. Inman, J. Huse, and R. V. Considine. 2000. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits leptin production in subcutaneous and omental adipocytes from morbidly obese humans. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85:530-535.

Feuermann, Y., S. J. Mabjeesh, L. Niv-Spector, D. Levin, and A. Shamay. 2006. Prolactin affects leptin action in the bovine mammary gland via the mammary fat pad. J Endocrinol 191:407-413. crossref(new window)

Fruebis, J., T. S. Tsao, S. Javorschi, D. Ebbets-Reed, M. R. Erickson, F. T. Yen, B. E. Bihain, and H. F. Lodish. 2001. Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98:2005-2010. crossref(new window)

Gomez-Pinilla, F., Z. Ying, R. R. Roy, R. Molteni, and V. R. Edgerton. 2002. Voluntary exercise induces a BDNF-mediated mechanism that promotes neuroplasticity. J. Neurophysiol. 88:2187-2195. crossref(new window)

Geary, T. W., E. L. McFadin, M. D. MacNeil, E. E. Grings, R. E. Short, R. N. Funston, and D. H. Keisler. 2003. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1-8.

Goff, J. P. and J. R. Stabel. 1990. Decreased plasma retinol, alphatocopherol, and zinc concentration during the periparturient period: effect of milk fever. J. Dairy Sci. 73:3195-3199. crossref(new window)

Goralski, K. B., T. C. McCarthy, E. A. Hanniman, B. A. Zabel, E. C. Butcher, S. D. Parlee, S. Muruganandan, and C. J. Sinal. 2007. Chemerin, a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism. J. Biol. Chem. 282:28175-28188. crossref(new window)

Gotoh, T. 2003. Histochemical properties of skeletal muscles in Japanese cattle and their meat production ability. Anim. Sci. J. 74:339-354. crossref(new window)

Gotoh, T., H. Iwamoto, Y. Nakanishi, R. Umetsu, and Y. Ono. 1999. Histochemical properties of skeletal muscles in different body parts of young Japanese black steers. Anim. Sci. Technol. 70:497-509.

Grabstein, K. H., J. Eisenman, K. Shanebeck, C. Rauch, S. Srinivasan, V. Fung, C. Beers, J. Richardson, M. A. Schoenborn, and M. Ahdieh et al. 1994. Cloning of a T cell growth factor that interacts with the beta chain of the interleukin-2 receptor. Science 264:965-968. crossref(new window)

Gusarova, V., C. A. Alexa, E. Na, P. E. Stevis, Y. Xin, S. Bonner-Weir, J. C. Cohen, H. H. Hobbs, A. J. Murphy, G. D. Yancopoulos, and J. Gromada. 2014. ANGPTL8/betatrophin does not control pancreatic beta cell expansion. Cell 159:691-696. crossref(new window)

Haugen, F., F. Norheim, H. Lian, A. J. Wensaas, S. Dueland, O. Berg, A. Funderud, B. S. Skålhegg, T. Raastad, and C. A. Drevon. 2010. IL-7 is expressed and secreted by human skeletal muscle cells. Am. J. Physiol.-Cell Physiol. 298:C807-C816. crossref(new window)

Hilton, D. J., N. A. Nicola, and D. Metcalf. 1988. Purification of a murine leukemia inhibitory factor from Krebs ascites cells. Anal. Biochem. 173: 359-367. crossref(new window)

Hu, W. and P. Feng. 2011. Elevated serum chemerin concentrations are associated with renal dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 91:159-163. crossref(new window)

Kadokawa, H., J. R. Briegel, M. A. Blackberry, D. Blache, G. B. Martin, and N. R. Adams. 2003. Relationships between plasma concentrations of leptin and other metabolic hormones in GH-transgenic sheep infused with glucose. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 24:219-229. crossref(new window)

Kang, H. J., N. H. Trang, and M. Baik. 2015. Effects of dietary restriction on the expression of lipid metabolism and growth hormone signaling genes in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Korean cattle steers. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28:1187-1193. crossref(new window)

Keller, C., Y. Hellsten, A. Steensberg, and B. K. Pedersen. 2006. Differential regulation of IL-6 and TNF-alpha via calcineurin in human skeletal muscle cells. Cytokine 36:141-147. crossref(new window)

Kenison, D. C., T. H. Elsasser, and R. Fayer. 1991. Tumor necrosis factor as a potential mediator of acute metabolic and hormonal responses to endotoxemia in calves. Am. J. Vet. Res. 52:1320-1326.

Kokkonen, T., J. Taponen, T. Anttila, L. Syrjala-Qvist, C. Delavaud, Y. Chilliard, M. Tuori, and A. T. Tesfa. 2005. Effect of body fatness and glucogenic supplement on lipid and protein mobilization and plasma leptin in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 88:1127-1141. crossref(new window)

Komatsu, T., F. Itoh, S. Mikawa, and K. Hodate. 2003. Gene expression of resistin in adipose tissue and mammary gland of lactating and non-lactating cows. J. Endocrinol. 178:R1-R5. crossref(new window)

Komatsu, T., F. Itoh, R. Sakumoto, K. Hodate, Y. Obara, and S. Kushibiki. 2007. Changes in the gene expression of adiponectin and glucose transporter 12 (GLUT12) in lactating and nonlactating cows. Anim. Sci. J. 78:98-102. crossref(new window)

Komolka, K., E. Albrecht, L. Schering, J. Brenmoehl, A. Hoeflich, and S. Maak. 2014. Locus characterization and gene expression of bovine FNDC5: Is the myokine irisin relevant in cattle? PLoS One 9:e88060. crossref(new window)

Krautbauer, S., J. Wanninger, K. Eisinger, Y. Hader, M. Beck, A. Kopp, A. Schmid, T. S. Weiss, C. Dorn, and C. Buechler. 2013. Chemerin is highly expressed in hepatocytes and is induced in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis liver. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 95:199-205. crossref(new window)

Kushibiki, S., K. Hodate, H. Shingu, Y. Ueda, Y. Mori, T. Itoh, and Y. Yokomizo. 2001a. Effects of long-term administration of recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha on glucose metabolism and growth hormone secretion in steers. Am. J. Vet. Res. 62:794-798. crossref(new window)

Kushibiki, S., K. Hodate, H. Shingu, Y. Ueda, M. Shinoda, Y. Mori, T. Itoh, and Y. Yokomizo. 2001b. Insulin resistance induced in dairy steers by tumor necrosis factor alpha is partially reversed by 2,4-thiazolidinedione. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 21:25-37. crossref(new window)

Kushibiki, S., K. Hodate, Y. Ueda, H. Shingu, Y. Mori, T. Itoh, and Y. Yokomizo. 2000. Administration of recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha affects intermediary metabolism and insulin and growth hormone secretion in dairy heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 78:2164-2171. crossref(new window)

Laliotis, G. P., I. Bizelis, and E. Rogdakis. 2010. Comparative Approach of the de novo Fatty Acid Synthesis (Lipogenesis) between Ruminant and Non Ruminant Mammalian Species: From Biochemical Level to the Main Regulatory Lipogenic Genes. Curr. Genomics 11:168-183. crossref(new window)

Lee, H. G., Y. J. Choi, S. R. Lee, H. Kuwayama, H. Hidari, and S. K. You. 2005a. Effects of dietary protein and growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-2) on plasma IGF-1 and IGFBPs in Holstein steers. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 28:134-146. crossref(new window)

Lee, H. G., H. Hidari, S. K. Kang, Z. S. Hong, C. X. Xu, S. H. Kim, K. S. Seo, D. H. Yoon, and Y. J. Choi. 2005b. The Relationships between plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) to growth pattern, and characteristics of plasma IGFBPs in steers. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1575-1581. crossref(new window)

Lents, C. A., R. P. Wettemann, F. J. White, I. Rubio, N. H. Ciccioli, L. J. Spicer, D. H. Keisler, and M. E. Payton. 2005. Influence of nutrient intake and body fat on concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin, thyroxine, and leptin in plasma of gestating beef cows. J. Anim. Sci. 83:586-596. crossref(new window)

Luo, X. H., L. J. Guo, L. Q. Yuan, H. Xie, H. D. Zhou, X. P. Wu, and E. Y. Liao. 2005. Adiponectin stimulates human osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation via the MAPK signaling pathway. Exp. Cell Res. 309:99-109. crossref(new window)

Martins, K. J., I. MacLean, G. K. Murdoch, W. T. Dixon, and C. T. Putman. 2011. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition delays low-frequency stimulation-induced satellite cell activation in rat fast-twitch muscle. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 36:996-1000. crossref(new window)

Matsumoto, K., S. Hashimoto, Y. Gon, T. Nakayama, and T. Horie. 1998. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced and chemical mediator-induced IL-8 expression in human bronchial epithelial cells through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 101:825-831. crossref(new window)

Matthews, V., M.-B. Astrom, M. H. S. Chan, C. R. Bruce, K. S. Krabbe, O. Prelovsek, T. Akerström, C. Yfanti, C. Broholm, and O. Mortensen et al. 2009. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is produced by skeletal muscle cells in response to contraction and enhances fat oxidation via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Diabetologia 52:1409-1418. crossref(new window)

McCann, J. P., S. C. Loo, D. L. Aalseth, and T. Abribat. 1997. Differential effects of GH stimulation on fasting and prandial metabolism and plasma IGFs and IGF-binding proteins in lean and obese sheep. J. Endocrinol. 154:329-346. crossref(new window)

Memon, R. A., K. R. Feingold, A. H. Moser, J. Fuller, and C. Grunfeld. 1998. Regulation of fatty acid transport protein and fatty acid translocase mRNA levels by endotoxin and cytokines. Am. J. Physiol. - Endocrinol. Metab. 274:E210-E217. crossref(new window)

Misu, H., T. Takamura, H. Takayama, H. Hayashi, N. Matsuzawa-Nagata, S. Kurita, K. Ishikura, H. Ando, Y. Takeshita, and T. Ota et al. 2010. A liver-derived secretory protein, selenoprotein P, causes insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 12:483-495. crossref(new window)

Miura, P., A. Amirouche, C. Clow, G. Bélanger, and B. J. Jasmin. 2012. Brain‐derived neurotrophic factor expression is repressed during myogenic differentiation by miR‐206. J. Neurochem. 120:230-238. crossref(new window)

Morrison, C. D., J. A. Daniel, B. J. Holmberg, J. Djiane, N. Raver, A. Gertler, and D. H. Keisler. 2001. Central infusion of leptin into well-fed and undernourished ewe lambs: effects on feed intake and serum concentrations of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone. J. Endocrinol. 168:317-324. crossref(new window)

Mousavi, K. and B. J. Jasmin. 2006. BDNF is expressed in skeletal muscle satellite cells and inhibits myogenic differentiation. J. Neurosci. 26:5739-5749. crossref(new window)

Murata, Y., M. Konishi, and N. Itoh. 2011. FGF21 as an Endocrine Regulator in Lipid Metabolism: From Molecular Evolution to Physiology and Pathophysiology. J. Nutr. Metab. Article ID 981315.

Nicola, N. 1994. Guidebook to Cytokines and Their Receptors. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, UK.

Nieman, D. C., J. M. Davis, D. A. Henson, J. Walberg-Rankin, M. Shute, C. L. Dumke, A. C. Utter, D. M. Vinci, J. A. Carson, and A. Brown. 2003. Carbohydrate ingestion influences skeletal muscle cytokine mRNA and plasma cytokine levels after a 3-h run. J. Appl. Physiol. 94:1917-1925. crossref(new window)

Ohtani, Y., T. Takahashi, K. Sato, A. Ardiyanti, S. H. Song, R. Sato, K. Onda, Y. Wada, Y. Obara, K. Suzuki, A. Hagino, S. G. Roh, and K. Katoh. 2012. Changes in circulating adiponectin and metabolic hormone concentrations during periparturient and lactation periods in Holstein dairy cows. Anim. Sci. J. 83:788-795. crossref(new window)

Ohtani, Y., T. Yonezawa, S. H. Song, T. Takahashi, A. Ardiyanti, K. Sato, A. Hagino, S. G. Roh, and K. Katoh. 2011. Gene expression and hormonal regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in bovine mammary gland and mammary epithelial cells. Anim. Sci. J. 82:99-106. crossref(new window)

Oike, Y., M. Akao, K. Yasunaga, T. Yamauchi, T. Morisada, Y. Ito, T. Urano, Y. Kimura, Y. Kubota, and H. Maekawa, et al. 2005. Angiopoietin-related growth factor antagonizes obesity and insulin resistance. Nat. Med. 11:400-408. crossref(new window)

Pedersen, B. K. 2009. The diseasome of physical inactivity-and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk. J. Physiol. 587: 5559-5568. crossref(new window)

Pedersen, B. K. 2011. Exercise-induced myokines and their role in chronic diseases. Brain Behav. Immun. 25:811-816. crossref(new window)

Pedersen, B. K. 2013. Muscle as a secretory organ. Compr. Physiol. 3:1337-1362.

Pedersen, B. K., T. C. Akerstrom, A. R. Nielsen, and C. P. Fischer. 2007. Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism. J. Appl. Physiol. 103:1093-1098. crossref(new window)

Pedersen, B. K., M. Pedersen, K. S. Krabbe, H. Bruunsgaard, V. B. Matthews, and M. A. Febbraio. 2009. Role of exercise‐induced brain‐derived neurotrophic factor production in the regulation of energy homeostasis in mammals. Exp. Physiol. 94:1153-1160. crossref(new window)

Pethick, D. W. and D. B. Lindsay. 1982. Metabolism of ketone bodies in pregnant sheep. Br. J. Nutr. 48:549-563. crossref(new window)

Roberts, C. A., S. N. McCutcheon, H. T. Blair, P. D. Gluckman, and B. H. Breier. 1990. Developmental patterns of plasma insulinlike growth factor-1 concentrations in sheep. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 7:457-463. crossref(new window)

Roberts, L. D., P. Bostrom, J. F. O'Sullivan, R. T. Schinzel, G. D. Lewis, A. Dejam, Y.-K. Lee, M. J. Palma, S. Calhoun, and A. Georgiadi. 2014. ${\beta}$-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic ${\beta}$-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. Cell Metab. 19:96-108. crossref(new window)

Roh, S., I. J. Clarke, R. W. Xu, J. W. Goding, K. Loneragan, and C. Chen. 1998. The in vitro effect of leptin on basal and growth hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated growth hormone secretion from the ovine pituitary gland. Neuroendocrinology 68:361-364. crossref(new window)

Roh, S. G., D. Hishikawa, Y. H. Hong, and S. Sasaki. 2006. Control of adipogenesis in ruminants. Anim. Sci. J. 77:472-477. crossref(new window)

Roh, S. G., G. Y. Nie, K. Loneragan, A. Gertler, and C. Chen. 2001. Direct modification of somatotrope function by long-term leptin treatment of primary cultured ovine pituitary cells. Endocrinology 142:5167-5171. crossref(new window)

Roh, S. G., S. H. Song, K. C. Choi, K. Katoh, V. Wittamer, M. Parmentier, and S. Sasaki. 2007. Chemerin-A new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 362:1013-1018. crossref(new window)

Ronge, H. and J. Blum. 1989. Insulin-like growth factor I during growth in bulls. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 29:105-111. crossref(new window)

Ruan, H., P. D. Miles, C. M. Ladd, K. Ross, T. R. Golub, J. M. Olefsky, and H. F. Lodish. 2002. Profiling gene transcription in vivo reveals adipose tissue as an immediate target of tumor necrosis factor-alpha: implications for insulin resistance. Diabetes 51:3176-3188. crossref(new window)

Ruan, H., M. J. Zarnowski, S. W. Cushman, and H. F. Lodish. 2003. Standard isolation of primary adipose cells from mouse epididymal fat pads induces inflammatory mediators and downregulates adipocyte genes. J. Biol. Chem. 278:47585-47593. crossref(new window)

Saito, Y., T. Hayashi, A. Tanaka, Y. Watanabe, M. Suzuki, E. Saito, and K. Takahashi. 1999. Selenoprotein P in human plasma as an extracellular phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase. Isolation and enzymatic characterization of human selenoprotein p. J. Biol. Chem. 274:2866-2871. crossref(new window)

Sakaguchi, S., J. Shono, T. Suzuki, S. Sawano, J. E. Anderson, M. K. Do, H. Ohtsubo, W. Mizunoya, Y. Sato, M. Nakamura, M. Furuse, K. Yamada, Y. Ikeuchi, and R. Tatsumi. 2014. Implication of anti-inflammatory macrophages in regenerative moto-neuritogenesis: promotion of myoblast migration and neural chemorepellent semaphorin 3A expression in injured muscle. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 54:272-285. crossref(new window)

Samitz, G., M. Egger, and M. Zwahlen. 2011. Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int. J. Epidemiol. 40:1382-1400. crossref(new window)