JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Ambient Temperature on Growth Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Immune Cell Populations in Korean Cattle Steers
Kang, H.J.; Lee, I.K.; Piao, M.Y.; Gu, M.J.; Yun, C.H.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.H.; Baik, M.;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Exposure to cold may affect growth performance in accordance with the metabolic and immunological activities of animals. We evaluated whether ambient temperature affects growth performance, blood metabolites, and immune cell populations in Korean cattle. Eighteen Korean cattle steers with a mean age of 10 months and a mean weight of 277 kg were used. All steers were fed a growing stage-concentrate diet at a rate of 1.5% of body weight and Timothy hay ad libitum for 8 weeks. Experimental period 1 (P1) was for four weeks from March 7 to April 3 and period 2 (P2) was four weeks from April 4 to May 1. Mean () and minimum () indoor ambient temperatures during P1 were lower (p<0.001) than those ( and , respectively) during P2. Daily dry matter feed intake in both the concentrate diet and forage groups was higher (p<0.001) during P2 than P1. Average daily weight gain was higher (p<0.001) during P2 (1.38 kg/d) than P1 (1.13 kg/d). Feed efficiency during P2 was higher (p = 0.015) than P1. Blood was collected three times; on March 7, April 4, and May 2. Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) were higher on March 7 than April 4 and May 2. Blood cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride concentrations did not differ among months. Blood CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD25+ T cell percentages were higher, while CD8+CD25+ T cell percentage was lower, during the colder month of March than during May, suggesting that ambient temperature affects blood T cell populations. In conclusion, colder ambient temperature decreased growth and feed efficiency in Korean cattle steers. The higher circulating NEFA concentrations observed in March compared to April suggest that lipolysis may occur at colder ambient temperatures to generate heat and maintain body temperature, resulting in lower feed efficiency in March.
 Keywords
Korean Cattle;Ambient Temperature;Growth;Feed Efficiency;Blood Metabolites;Immune Cells;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Alvarez, M. B and H. D. Johnson. 1973. Environmental heat exposure on cattle plasma catecholamine and glucocorticoids. J. Dairy Sci. 56:189-194. crossref(new window)

2.
Ames, D. R., D. R. Brink, and C. L. Willms. 1980. Adjusting protein in feedlot diets during thermal stress. J. Anim. Sci. 50:1-6.

3.
Bauman, D. E. and W. B. Currie. 1980. Partitioning of nutrients during pregnancy and lactation: A review of mechanisms involving homeostasis and homeorhesis. J. Dairy Sci. 63:1514-1529. crossref(new window)

4.
Birkelo, C. P., D. E. Johnson, and H. P. Phetteplace. 1991. Maintenance requirements of beef cattle as affected by season on different planes of nutrition. J. Anim. Sci. 69:1214-1222.

5.
Broucek, J., K. Kovalcik, D. Gajdosik, and V. Brestensky. 1987. The effect of extreme ambient temperatures on haematological and biochemical indicators in heifers. J. Vet. Med. 32:259-268.

6.
Chen, X., R. Jiang, and Z. Geng. 2012. Cold stress in broiler: Global gene expression analyses suggest a major role of CYP genes in cold responses. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39:425-429. crossref(new window)

7.
Christopherson, R. J. 1985. Management and housing of animals in cold environments. In: Stress Physiology in Livestock (Ed. M. K. Yousef). Ungulates, II. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL, USA. pp. 175-194.

8.
Delfino, J. G. and G. W. Mathison. 1991. Effects of cold environment and intake level on the energetic efficiency of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4577-4587.

9.
Elam, C. J. 1970. Problems related to intensive indoor and outdoor beef production systems. J. Anim. Sci. 32:554-559.

10.
Frank, J. W., J. A. Carroll, G. L. Allee, and M. E. Zanelli. 2003. The effects of thermal environment and spray-dried plasma on the acute-phase response of pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide. J. Anim. Sci. 81:1166-1176.

11.
Ghazavi, A., G. Mosayebi, H. Solhi, M. Rafiei, and S. M. Moazzeni. 2013. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic opium (Taryak) smokers. Immunol. Let. 153:22-26. crossref(new window)

12.
Grzych, M. 2010. Webinar Portal for Forestry and Natural Resources. http://www.forestrywebinars.net/webinars/planningand-design-of-livestock-watering-systems/ Cattle Stress Index Description. Accessed Jun 26, 2014.

13.
Hangalapura, B. N., M. G. Kaiser, J. J. Poel, H. K. Parmentier, and S. J. Lamont. 2005. Cold stress equally enhances in vivo proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 30:503-511.

14.
Ho, C. H., E. J. Lee, I. Lee, and S. J. Jeong. 2006. Earlier spring in Seoul. Korea Int. J. Climatol. 26:2117-2127. crossref(new window)

15.
Kampen, A. H., T. Tollersrud, and A. Lund. 2004. Flow cytometric measurement of neutrophil respiratory burst in whole bovine blood using live Staphylococcus aureus. J. Immunol. Methods 289:47-55. crossref(new window)

16.
Khan, M. A., W. M. Dickson, and K. M. Meyers. 1970. The effect of low environmental temperature on plasma corticosteroid and glucose concentrations in the newborn calf. J. Endocrinol. 48:355-363. crossref(new window)

17.
Kim, M. H., J. Y. Yang, D. U. Santi, H. J. Lee, C. H. Yun, and J. K. Ha. 2011. The stress of weaning influences serum levels of acute-phase proteins, iron-binding proteins, inflammatory cytokines, cortisol, and leukocyte subsets in Holstein calves. J. Vet. Sci. 12:151-157. crossref(new window)

18.
Kizaki, T., H. Yamashita, S. Oh-Ishi, N. K. Day, R. A. Good, and H. Ohno. 1995. Immunomodulation by cells of mononuclear phagocyte lineage in acute cold-stressed or cold-acclimatized mice. Immunology 86:456-462.

19.
Mader, T. L., L. J. Johnson, and J. B. Gaughan. 2010. A comprehensive index for assessing environmental stress in animals. J. Anim. Sci. 88:2153-2165. crossref(new window)

20.
Mills, S. E. and B. F. Jenny. 1979. Effects of high concentrate feeding and fasting on plasma glucocorticoids in dairy heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 48:961-965.

21.
Nonnecke, B. J., M. R. Foote, B. L. Miller, M. Fowler, T. E. Johnson, and R. L. Horst. 2009. Effects of chronic environmental cold on growth, health, and select metabolic and immunologic responses of preruminant calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92:6134-6143. crossref(new window)

22.
Takahashi, H., H. Murata, and H. Matsumoto. 1986. Responses of plasma insulin, glucagon and cortisol to cold exposure in calves. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi. 48:419-422. crossref(new window)

23.
Tsopanakis, C. and C. Tesserommatis. 1991. Cold swimming stress: Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and LCAT activity in male and female rats. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 38:813-816. crossref(new window)

24.
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, and B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74:3583-3597. crossref(new window)

25.
Ward, J. R., D. M. Henricks, T. C. Jenkins, and W. C. Bridges. 1992. Serum hormone and metabolite concentrations in fasted young bulls and steers. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 9:97-103. crossref(new window)

26.
Weber, P. S., T. Toelboell, L. C. Chang, J. D. Tirrell, P. M. Saama, G. W. Smith, and J. L. Burton. 2004. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid-induced down-regulation of neutrophil Lselectin in cattle: evidence for effects at the gene-expression level and primarily on blood neutrophils. J. Leukoc. Biol. 75:815-827.

27.
Webster, A. J. 1970. Direct effects of cold weather on the energetic efficiency of beef production in different regions of Canada. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 50:563-573. crossref(new window)

28.
Young, B. A. and R. J. Christopherson. 1974. Effect of prolonged cold exposure on digestion and metabolism in ruminants. In: Livestock Environment. Am. Soc. Agr. Eng., St. Joseph, MI, USA. pp. 75-80.

29.
Young, B. A. 1981. Cold stress as it affects animal production. J. Anim. Sci. 52:154-163.

30.
Young, B. A. 1983. Ruminant cold stress: Effect on production. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 57:1601-1607.