Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Feeding Purple Rice (Oryza sativa L. Var. Glutinosa) on the Quality of Pork and Pork Products
Jaturasitha, Sanchai; Ratanapradit, Punnares; Piawong, Witapong; Kreuzer, Michael;
  PDF(new window)
Purple rice is a strain of glutaneous rice rich in anthocyanins and -oryzanol. Both types of compounds are involved in antioxidant and lipid metabolism of mammals. Three experimental diet types were used which consisted approximately by half either of purple rice, white rice or corn. Diets were fed to pigs growing from about 30 to 100 kg. Meat samples were investigated either as raw or cured loin chops or as smoked bacon produced from the belly. Various physicochemical traits were assessed and data were evaluated by analysis of variance. Traits describing water-holding capacity (drip, thaw, and cooking losses) and tenderness (sensory grading, shear force) of the meat were mostly not significantly affected by the diet type. However, purple rice feeding of pigs resulted in lower fat and cholesterol contents of loin and smoked bacon compared to white rice, but not compared to corn feeding except of the fat content of the loin. The shelf life of the raw loin chops was improved by purple rice as well. In detail, the occurrence of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances after 9 days of chilled storage was three to four times higher in the white rice and corn diets than with purple rice. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the raw loin chops was 9:1 with purple rice and clearly higher with 12:1 with the other diets, meat lipids. Level and kind of effect of purple rice found in raw meat was not always recovered in the cured loin chops and the smoked bacon. Still the impression of flavor and color, as well as overall acceptability were best in the smoked bacon from the purple-rice fed pigs, whereas this effect did not occur in the cured loin chops. These findings suggest that purple rice has a certain, useful, bioactivity in pigs concerning meat quality, but some of these effects are of low practical relevance. Further studies have to show ways how transiency and low recovery in meat products of some of the effects can be counteracted.
Pig;Rice;Loin;Bacon;Anthocyanin;Antioxidant Properties;
 Cited by
Nutritional strategies to improve the lipid composition of meat, with emphasis on Thailand and Asia, Meat Science, 2016, 120, 157  crossref(new windwow)
AMSA. 1995. Research Guidelines for Cookery, Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Tenderness Measurements of Fresh Meat. American Meat Science Association. Savoy, IL, USA.

AOAC. 1996 Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edition. Arlington, VA, USA.

AOAC. 2005. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition. Arlington, VA, USA.

Bohac, C. E., K. S. Rhee, H. R. Cross, and K. Ono. 1988. Assessment of methodologies for calorimetric cholesterol assay of meats. J. Food Sci. 53:1642-1644. crossref(new window)

Boonsit, P., D. Kaladee, and P. Pongpiachan. 2006. Gamma oryzanol content in purple rice Thailand local genotypes. Agric. Sci. J. 37(Suppl.):191-194.

Cao, G., H. U. Muccitelli, C. Sanchez-Moreno, and R. L. Prior. 2001. Anthocyanins are absorbed in glycated forms in elderly women: A pharmacokinetic study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73:920-926.

Chen, C. W. and H. H. Cheng. 2006. A rice bran oil diet increases LDL-receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expressions and insulin sensitivity in rats with streptozotocin/nicotinamideinduced type 2 diabetes. J. Nutr. 136:1472-1476.

Chen, P. N., S. C. Chu, H. L. Chiou, W. H. Kuo, C. L. Chiang, and Y. S. Hsieh. 2006. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 235:248-259. crossref(new window)

Chotimarkorn, C., S. Benjakul, and N. Silalai. 2008. Antioxidant components and properties of five long-grained rice bran extracts from commercial available cultivars in Thailand. Food Chem. 111:636-641. crossref(new window)

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science. 2012. International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals. Accessed September 4, 2014.

Department of Livestock Development. 2002. Meat Processing. Division of Livestock Extension. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation, Bangkok, Thailand.

Devi, R. R., A. Jayalekshmy, and C. Arumughan. 2007. Antioxidant efficacy of phytochemical extracts from defatted rice bran in the bulk oil system. Food Chem. 104:658-664. crossref(new window)

El-Sayed, M., J. Abdel-Aal, C. Young, and I. Rabalski. 2006. Anthocyanin composition in black, blue, pink, purple, and red cereal grains. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:4696-4704. crossref(new window)

Folch, J., M. Lees, and G. H. S. Stanley. 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipid from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 226:497-509.

Hill, F. 1989. The solubility of intramuscular collagen in meat animals of various ages. J. Food Sci. 31:161-166.

Jaturasitha, S., R. Khiaosa-ard, P. Pongpiachan, and M. Kreuzer. 2009. Early deposition of n-3 fatty acids from tuna oil in lean and adipose tissue of fattening pigs is mainly permanent. J. Anim. Sci. 87:693-703.

Khiaosa-ard, R., P. Chungsiriwat, N. Chommanart, M. Kreuzer, and S. Jaturasitha. 2011. Enrichment with n-3 fatty acid by tuna oil feeding of pigs: changes in composition and properties of bacon and different sausages as affected by the supplementation period. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 91:87-95. crossref(new window)

Loetscher, Y., M. Kreuzer, D. Albiker, R. Stephan, and R. E. Messikommer. 2014. Effect of replacing dietary vitamin E by sage on performance and meatiness of spent hens, and the oxidative stability of sausages produced from their meat. Br. Poult. Sci. 55:576-584. crossref(new window)

Makkar, H. P. S. 2003. Quantification of Tannins in Tree and Shrub Foliage: A Laboratory Manual. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NL, USA.

Mayoral, A. I., M. Dorado, M. T. Guillen, A. Robina, J. M. Vivo, C. Vazques, and J. Ruiz. 1999. Development of meat and carcass quality characteristics in Iberian pigs reared outdoor. Meat Sci. 52:315-324. crossref(new window)

Morrison, W. R. and L. M. Smith. 1964. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron fluoride-methanol. J. Lipid Res. 5:600-608.

Nelida, G., J. R. Ramirez-Martnez, J. O. Aldana, M. E. Ramos-Nino, M. N. Clifford, S. Pekerar, and B. Mendez. 1998. Isolation, characterization and determination of biological activity of coffee proanthocyanidins. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77:368-372. crossref(new window)

NRC (National Research Council). 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th rev. ed. National Academies Press, Washington DC, USA.

Peawong, W., P. Ratanapradit, S. Jaturasitha, T. Apichartsrungkoon, D. Karladee, and P. Pongpiachan. 2011. Effects of glutinous purple rice (Oryza sativa L.) on performance, plasma cholesterol, and carcass quality of growing-finishing pigs (in Thai). J. Agric. 27:101-112.

Pharmacopee Francaise Vigne rouge. 1996. Aid to secure the sanitary safety of health products. 10th edition. Agence Franc, Paris, France.

Raes, K., S. De Smet, and D. Demeyer. 2001. Effect of doublemuscling in Belgian Blue young bulls on the intramuscular fatty acid composition with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid and poly-unsaturated fatty acids. Anim. Sci. J. 73:253-260.

Rohman, A. 2014. Rice bran oil's role in health and cooking. In: Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health (Eds. R. Watson, V. Preedy, and S. Zibadi). Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 481-490.

Rossell, J. B. 1994. Measurement of rancidity. In: Rancidity in Foods (Eds. J. C. Allen and R. J. Hamilton). Chapman & Hall, London, UK. pp. 22-53.

Rukmini, C. and T. C. Rughuram. 1991. Nutritional and biochemical aspects of the hypolipidemic action of rice bran oil: A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 10:593-601. crossref(new window)

Teltathum, T. 2004. Effect of gamma oryzanol in purple glutinous rice bran on immune response in male mice (Mus musculus). Master thesis. Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand. 155 p.

Warriss, P. D. 2010. Meat Science: An Introductory Text. 2nd Edition. CAB International, Wallingford Oxfordshire, UK.

Weisel, T., M. Baum, G. Eisenbrand, H. Dietrich, F. Will, J. P. Stockis, S. Kulling, C. Ruefer, C. Johannes, and C. Janzoaski. 2006. An anthocyanin/polyphenolic-rich fruit juice reduces oxidative DNA damage and increases glutathione level in healthy probands. Biotechnol. J. 1:388-397. crossref(new window)

Wilson, T. A., R. J. Nicolosi, B. Woolfrey, and D. Kritchevsky. 2007. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. J. Nutr. Biochem. 18:105-112. crossref(new window)

Xu, Z., N. Hua, and J. S. Godber. 2001. Antioxidant activity of tocopherols, tocotrienols, and ${\gamma}$-oryzanol components from rice bran against cholesterol oxidation accelerated by 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:2077-2081. crossref(new window)

Zawistowski, J., A. Kopec, and D. D. Kitts. 2009. Effects of black rice extract (Oryza sativa L. indica) on cholesterol levels and plasma lipid parameters in Wistar Kyoto rats. J. Funct. Foods 1:50-56. crossref(new window)