JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation
Lazzarini, Isis; Detmann, Edenio; Filho, Sebastiao de Campos Valadares; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Batista, Erick Darlisson; Rufino, Luana Marta de Almeida; Reis, William Lima Santiago dos; Franco, Marcia de Oliveira;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW), were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only), ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP)/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and starch (2.5 g/kg BW), and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW) and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW), thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM). This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a Latin square design following a factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment). Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10) forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p<0.10) total intake but did not affect (p<0.10) forage intake. There was an interaction between nitrogen and starch (p<0.10) for organic matter digestibility. Organic matter digestibility was increased only by supplying starch and nitrogen together. Nitrogen balance (NB) was increased (p<0.10) by the nitrogen supplementation as well as by starch supplementation. Despite this, even though a significant interaction was not observed (p>0.10), NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal.
 Keywords
Beef Cattle;Digestibility;Intake;Metabolism;Nellore Steers;Nitrogen Retention;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season, Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, 2016, 29, 12, 1710  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Arroquy, J. I., R. C. Cochran, T. G. Nagaraja, E. C. Titgemeyer, and D. E. Johnson. 2005. Effect of types of non-fiber carbohydrate on in vitro forage fiber digestion of low-quality grass hay. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 120:93-106. crossref(new window)

2.
Arroquy, J. I., R. C. Cochran, M. Villareal, T. A. Wickersham, D. A. Llewellyn, E. C. Titgemeyer, T. G. Nagaraja, D. E. Johnson, and D. Gnad. 2004. Effect of level of rumen degradable protein and type of supplemental non-fiber carbohydrate on intake and digestion of low-quality grass hay by beef cattle. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 115:83-99. crossref(new window)

3.
Batista, E. D., E. Detmann, E. C. Titgemeyer, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, L. L. Prates, L. N. Renno, and M. F. Paulino. 2016. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. J. Anim. Sci. 94:201-216. crossref(new window)

4.
Carvalho, I. P. C., E. Detmann, H. C. Mantovani, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, V. A. C. Costa, and D. I. Gomes. 2011. Growth and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from rumen fluid according to energy or nitrogen source. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 40:1260-1265. crossref(new window)

5.
Chen, X. B. and M. J. Gomes. 1992. Estimation of Microbial Protein Supply to Sheep and Cattle Based on Urinary Excretion of Purine Derivatives - An Overview of the Technical Details. Rowett Research Institute, Buchsburnd Aberdeen, UK. 21 p.

6.
Chizzotti, M. L., S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, F. H. M. Chizzotti, J. M. S. Campos, M. I. Marcondes, and M. A. Fonseca. 2006. Intake, digestibility and urinary excretion of urea and purine derivatives in heifers with different body weights. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 35:1813-1821. crossref(new window)

7.
Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. V. Valadares Filho, L. T. Henriques, and I. P. C. Carvalho. 2011a. Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 40:2815-2826. crossref(new window)

8.
Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, I. P. C. Carvalho, and L. P. Monteiro. 2011b. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with different sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 40:1788-1798. crossref(new window)

9.
Costa, V. A. C., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, L. T. Henriques, I. P. C. Carvalho, and T. N. P. Valente. 2011c. Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 40:2805-2814. crossref(new window)

10.
Detmann, E., M. A. Souza, S. C. Valadares Filho, A. C. Queiroz, T.T. Berchielle, E. O. S. Saliba, L. S. Cabral, D. S. Pina, M. M.Ladeira, and J. A. G. Azevedo. 2012. Metodos para analise dealimentos. 1st Ed. Suprema, Visconde do Rio Branco, MG, Brazil.

11.
Detmann, E., E. E. L. Valente, E. D. Batista, and P. Huhtanen. 2014a. An evaluation of the performance and efficiency of nitrogen utilization in cattle fed tropical grass pastures with supplementation. Livest. Sci. 162:141-153. crossref(new window)

12.
Detmann, E., M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, and P. Huhtanen. 2014b. Nutritional aspects applied to grazing cattle in the tropics: A review based on Brazilian results. Semin-Cienc. Agrar. 35:2829-2854. crossref(new window)

13.
Detmann, E., E. D. Batista, M. O. Franco, L. M. A. Rufino, W. L. S. Reis, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, and C. B. Sampaio. 2015. Contribution of the rumen microbial nitrogen obtained using supplementation to the body accretion of nitrogen in cattle fed tropical forages. In: III Simposio Matogrossense de Bovinocultura de Corte, Cuiaba, MT, Brazil. pp. 1-3.

14.
Egan, A. R. 1965a. Nutritional status and intake regulation in sheep. III. The relationship between improvement of nitrogen status and increase in voluntary intake of low-protein roughages by sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 16:463-472. crossref(new window)

15.
Egan, A. R. 1965b. The fate and effects of duodenally infused casein and urea nitrogen in sheep fed on a low-protein roughage. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 16:169-177. crossref(new window)

16.
Egan, A. R. and R. J. Moir. 1965. Nutritional status and intake regulation in sheep. I. Effects of duodenally infused single doses of casein, urea, and propionate upon voluntary intake of a low-protein roughage by sheep. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 16:437-449. crossref(new window)

17.
El-Shazly, K., B. A. Dehority, and R. R. Johnson. 1961. Effect of starch on the digestion of cellulose in vitro and in vivo by rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 20:268-273.

18.
Figueiras, J. F., E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. F. Paulino, E. D. Batista, L. M. A. Rufino, T. N. P. Valente, W. L. S. Reis, and M. O. Franco. 2015. Nutritional performance of grazing cattle during dry-to-rainy transition season with protein supplementation. Arch. Zootec. 64:269-276.

19.
Figueiras, J. F., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, T. N. P. Valente, S. C. Valadares Filho, and I. Lazzarini. 2010. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing supplemented with nitrogenous compounds during dry season. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 39:1303-1312. crossref(new window)

20.
Franco, M. O. 2015. Nutritional Performance and Metabolic Characteristics in Cattle Fed Tropical Forage and Supplemented with Nitrogenous Compounds and Energy. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil.

21.
Gerrits, W. J. J., G. H. Tolman, J. W. Schrama, S. Tamminga, M. W. Bosch, and M. W. A. Verstegen. 1996. Effect of protein and protein-free energy intake on protein and fat deposition rates in preruminant calves of 80 to 240 kg live weight. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2129-2139. crossref(new window)

22.
Heldt, J. S., R. C. Cochran, C. P. Mathis, B. C. Woods, K. C. Olson, E. C. Titgemeyer, T. G. Nagaraja, E. S. Vanzant, and D. E. Johnson. 1999. Effects of level and source of carbohydrate and level of degradable intake protein on intake and digestion of low-quality tallgrass-prairie hay by beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2846-2854. crossref(new window)

23.
Illius, A. W. and N. S. Jessop. 1996. Metabolic constraints on voluntary intake in ruminants. J. Anim. Sci. 74:3052-3062. crossref(new window)

24.
Lazzarini, I., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, R. F. D. Valadares, F. A. Oliveira, P. T. Silva, and W. L. S. Reis. 2013. Nutritional performance of cattle grazing on low-quality tropical forage supplemented with nitrogenous compounds and/or starch. Rev. Bras. Zootec. 42:664-674. crossref(new window)

25.
Marini, J. C. and M. E. Van Amburgh. 2003. Nitrogen metabolism and recycling in Holstein heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 81:545-552. crossref(new window)

26.
Rufino, L. M. A. 2011. Ruminal and/or Abomasal Nitrogenous Supplementation in Cattle Fed Tropical Forage. M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil.

27.
Rufino, L. M. A. 2015. Nutritional Performance and Metabolic Characteristics in Cattle Fed Tropical Forages in Response to Infrequent Supplementation with Nitrogenous Compounds. Ph.D. Thesis, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG, Brazil.

28.
Sampaio, C. B., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, S. C. Valadares Filho, M. A. Souza, I. Lazzarini, I., P. V. Paulino, and A. C. Queiroz. 2010. Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:1471-1479. crossref(new window)

29.
Schroeder, G. F. and E. C. Titgemeyer. 2008. Interaction between protein and energy supply on protein utilization in growing cattle: A review. Livest. Sci. 114:1-10. crossref(new window)

30.
Souza, M. A., E. Detmann, M. F. Paulino, C. B. Sampaio, I. Lazzarini, and S. C. Valadares Filho. 2010. Intake, digestibility and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogen and/or starch. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 42:1299-1310. crossref(new window)

31.
Spanghero, M. and Z. M. Kowalski. 1997. Critical analysis of N balance experiments with lactating cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 52:113-122. crossref(new window)

32.
Titgemeyer, E. C., C. K. Armendariz, D. J. Bindel, R. H. Greenwood, and C. A. Loest. 2001. Evaluation of titanium dioxide as a digestibility marker for cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 79:1059-1063. crossref(new window)

33.
Valadares Filho, S. C. 1995. Microbial protein synthesis, crude protein ruminal degradation and intestinal digestibility in cattle. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on the Nutritional Requirements of Ruminants Jose Carlos Pereira. (Org.). JARD Vicosa MG, Brazil. pp. 201-234.

34.
Van Soest, P. J. 1994. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. 2nd Ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. 476 p.

35.
Verbic, J., X. B., N. A. MacLeod, and E. R. Orskov. 1990. Excretion of purine derivatives by ruminants. Effect of microbial nucleic acid infusion on purine derivative excretion by steers. J. Agric. Sci. 114:243-248. crossref(new window)

36.
Zervoudakis, J. T., M. F. Paulino, L. S. Cabral, E. Detmann, S. C. Valadares Filho, and E. H. B. K. Moraes. 2008. Multiple supplements of self controlled intake for steers during the growing phase in the rainy season. Cienc. Agrotec. 32:1968-1973. crossref(new window)