Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Active Distribution System Planning for Low-carbon Objective using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Active Distribution System Planning for Low-carbon Objective using Cuckoo Search Algorithm
Zeng, Bo; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Xu; Dong, Jun; Liu, Wenxia;
  PDF(new window)
In this study, a method for the low-carbon active distribution system (ADS) planning is proposed. It takes into account the impacts of both network capacity and demand correlation to the renewable energy accommodation, and incorporates demand response (DR) as an available resource in the ADS planning. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming model, whereby the optimal allocation of renewable energy sources and the design of DR contract (i.e. payment incentives and default penalties) are determined simultaneously, in order to achieve the minimization of total cost and emissions subjected to the system constraints. The uncertainties that involved are also considered by using the scenario synthesis method with the improved Taguchi's orthogonal array testing for reducing information redundancy. A novel cuckoo search (CS) is applied for the planning optimization. The case study results confirm the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.
Active distribution system;Low-carbon;Renewable distributed generation;Flexible load;Scenario reduction;Cuckoo Search algorithm;
 Cited by
Crisscross Optimization Algorithm and Monte Carlo Simulation for Solving Optimal Distributed Generation Allocation Problem, Energies, 2015, 8, 12, 13641  crossref(new windwow)
Improved Global Maximum Power Point Tracking for Photovoltaic System via Cuckoo Search under Partial Shaded Conditions, Journal of Power Electronics, 2016, 16, 1, 287  crossref(new windwow)
IEA, "$CO_2$ emissions from fuel combustion," [Online]. Available:, Dec. 2012.

State Council of China, "The twelfth five-year plan for national economic and social development of the People's Republic of China," [Online]. Available:, Mar, 2011.

Department of Energy and Climate Change, UK, "Planning our electric future: a White Paper for secure, affordable and low‑ carbon electricity," [Online]. Available:, Jul. 2011.

Q. Chen, C. Kang, Q. Xia, and J. Zhong, "Power generation expansion planning model towards lowcarbon economy and its application in China," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 1117-1125, May. 2010. crossref(new window)

S.-Y. Kim, I.-S. Bae, and J.-O. Kim, "The optimal operation for community energy system using a lowcarbon paradigm with phase-type particle swarm optimization," J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 530-537, Nov. 2010. crossref(new window)

F. Careri, C. Genesi, P. Marannino, M. Montagna, S. Rossi, and I. Siviero, "Generation expansion planning in the age of green economy," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 2214-2223, Nov. 2011. crossref(new window)

P. E. Labisa, Rey G. Visandeb, R. C. Pallugnac, and N. D. Caliaoc, "The contribution of renewable distributed generation in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions," Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 4891-4896, Dec. 2011. crossref(new window)

V. F. Martins and C. L. T. Borges, "Active distribution network integrated planning incorporating distributed generation and load response uncertainties," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 2164-2172, Nov. 2011. crossref(new window)

S. Tan, J.-X. Xu, and S. K. Panda, "Optimization of distribution network incorporating distributed generators: an integrated approach," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 2421-2432, Aug. 2013. crossref(new window)

M. F. Shaaban, Y. M. Atwa, and E. F. El-Saadany, "DG allocation for benefit maximization in distribution networks," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.28, no.2, pp. 639-649, May. 2013. crossref(new window)

J. Aghaei and M.-I. Alizadeh, "Demand response in smart electricity grids equipped with renewable energy sources: A review," Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., vol. 18, pp. 64-72, Feb. 2013. crossref(new window)

T. Williams, D. Wang, C. Crawford, and N. Djilali, "Integrating renewable energy using a smart distribution system: Potential of self-regulating demand response," Renewable Energy, vol. 52, pp. 46-56, Apr. 2013. crossref(new window)

P. Cappers, A. Mills, C. Goldman, R. Wiser, and J. H. Eto, "An assessment of the role mass market demand response could play in contributing to the management of variable generation integration issues," Energy Policy, vol. 48, pp. 420-429, Sep. 2012. crossref(new window)

M. D. Ilic, L. Xie, and J. Joo, "Efficient coordination of wind power and price-responsive demand - Part I: Theoretical foundations," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 1885-1893, Nov. 2011. crossref(new window)

T. Zhou, C. Kang, X. Chen, Y. Wu, and J. Xin, "Evaluating low-carbon effects of demand response from smart distribution grid," in Proceedings of 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on ISGT Europe, Berlin, Germany, Oct. 2012.

M. Zeng, Theories and Applications of Demand-side Management, Beijing: China Electric Power Press, 2001.

M. Hajian, W. D. Rosehart, and H. Zareipour, "Probabilistic power flow by Monte Carlo simulation with latin supercube sampling," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.28, no.2, pp. 1550-1559, May. 2013. crossref(new window)

C.-L. Su, "Probabilistic load-flow computation using point estimate method," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.20, no.4, pp. 1843-1851, Nov. 2005. crossref(new window)

H. Yu, C. Y. Chung, and K. P. Wong, "Robust transmission network expansion planning method with Taguchi's orthogonal array testing," IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.26, no.3, pp. 1573-1580, Aug. 2011. crossref(new window)

X.-S. Yang and S. Deb, "Cuckoo search via Levy flights," in Proceedings of 2009 IEEE World Congress on NABIC, Coimbatore, India, Dec. 2009.

Z. Moravej and A. Akhlaghi, "A novel approach based on cuckoo search for DG allocation in distribution network," Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 672-679, Jan. 2013. crossref(new window)

Y. Li and E. Zio, "Uncertainty analysis of the adequacy assessment model of a distributed generation system," Renewable Energy, vol. 41, pp. 235-244, May. 2012. crossref(new window)

A. D. Ellerman and P. L. Joskow. The European Union's Emissions Trading System in Perspective. Massachusetts Inst. Technol.. May. 2008. [Online]. Available: