Publisher : The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
DOI : 10.5370/JEET.2015.10.3.755
Title & Authors
Methods for Adding Demand Response Capability to a Thermostatically Controlled Load with an Existing On-off Controller Jin, Young Gyu; Yoon, Yong Tae;
A thermostatically controlled load (TCL) can be one of the most appropriate resources for demand response (DR) in a smart grid environment. DR capability can be effectively implemented in a TCL with various intelligent control methods. However, because traditional on-off control is still a commonly used method in a TCL, it is useful to develop a method for adding DR capability to the TCL with an existing on-off controller. As a specific realization of supervisory control for implementing DR capability in the TCL, two methods are proposed - a method involving the changing of a set point and a method involving the paralleling of an identified system without delay. The proposed methods are analyzed through the simulations with an electric heater for different power consumption levels in the on-state. Considerable cost benefit can be achieved with the proposed methods when compared with the case without DR. In addition, the observations suggest that a medium power consumption level, instead of the maximum power, in the on-state should be used for consistently obtaining the cost benefit without severe temperature deviation from the specified temperature range for DR.
Demand response;Thermostatically controlled load;Dynamic set point;Dynamic programming;Real time pricing;
Ahmad Faruqui and Stephen George, “Quantifying Customer Response to Dynamic Pricing,” Electricity J., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 53-63, 2005.
Karen Herter, Patrick McAuliffe, and Arthur Rosenfeld, “An Exploratory Analysis of California Residential Customer Response to Critical Peak Pricing of Electricity,” Energy, vol. 32, pp. 25-34, 2007.
Mehrdad Tahmasebi and Jagadeesh Pasupuleti, “Demand Response Impact on Market Operator’s Revenue and Load Profile of a Grid Connected with Wind Power Plants,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 46-52, 2013.
Daniel S. Kirschen, “Demand-Side View of Electricity Markets,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 520-527, 2003.
Mohamed H. Albadi and Ehab F. El-Saadany, “A Summary of Demand Response in Electricity Markets,” Electr. Power Syst. Res., vol. 78, pp. 1989-1996, 2008.
Jong-Ryul Won and Kyung-Bin Song, “An Analysis on Power Demand Reduction Effects of Demand Response Systems in the Smart Grid Environment in Korea,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1296-1304, 2013.
Antonio J. Conejo, Juan M. Morales and Luis Baringo, “Real-Time Demand Response Model,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 236-242, 2010.
Jose Medina, Nelson Muller and Ilya Roytelman, “Demand Response and Distribution Grid Operations: Opportunities and Challenges,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 193-198, 2010.
Amir-hamed Mohsenian-Rad and Alberto Leon-Garcia, “Optimal Residential Load Control with Price Prediction in Real-Time Electricity Pricing Environments,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 120-133, 2010.
Seung-Jun Kim and Georgios B. Giannakis, “Efficient and Scalable Demand Response for the Smart Power Grid,” in IEEE International Workshop on Computa-tional Advances in Multi-Sensor Adaptive Processing, pp. 109-112, 2011.
Virginia Smith, Tamim Sookoor, and Kamin Whitehouse, “Modeling Building Thermal Response to HVAC Zoning,” ACM SIGBED Review, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 39-45, 2012.
Naoya Motegi et al., Introduction to Commercial Building Control Strategies and Techniques for Demand Response: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 2007.
Residential Energy Consumption Survey of U.S. Energy Information Administration. Available online at http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential.
Mark S. Martinez, Demand Response Enabling Technologies for Small-Medium Businesses: Southern California Edison Company, 2006.
Manisa Pipattanasomporn, Murat Kuzlu, and Saifur Rahman, “An Algorithm for Intelligent Home Energy Management and Demand Response Analysis,” IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2166-2173, 2012.
Duncan S. Callaway, “Tapping the Energy Storage Potential in Electric Loads to Deliver Load Following and Regulation, with Application to Wind Energy,” Energy Convers. Management, vol. 50, pp. 1389-1400, 2009.
Johanna L. Mathieu, Stephan Koch and Duncan S. Callaway, State Estimation and Control of Electric Loads to Manage Real-Time Energy Imbalance,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 430-440, 2013.
Sigurd Skogestad and Ian Postlethwaite, Multivariable Feedback Control-Analysis and Design: 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2001.
Shengwei Wang and Zhenjun Ma, “Supervisory and Optimal Control of Building HVAC Systems: A Review,” HVAC&R Research, vol.14, pp.3-32, 2008.
Kun-Yuan Huang, Hong-Chan Chin, and Yann-Chang Huang, “A Model Reference Adaptive Control Strategy for Interruptible Load Management,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 683-689, 2004.
Leehter Yao, Wen-Chi Chang, and Rong-Liang Yen, “An Iterative Deepening Genetic Algorithm for Scheduling of Direct Load Control,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1414-1421, 2005.
Chris P. Underwood, HVAC Control Systems: Modelling, Analysis and Design: Routledge, 1999.
Betzaida Argüello-Serrano and Miguel Vélez-Reyes, “Nonlinear Control of a Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning System with Thermal Load Estimation,” IEEE Trans. Control Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 56-63, 1999.
Ning Lu and Srinivas Katipamula, “Control Strategies of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances in a Competitive Electricity Market,” in IEEE PES General Meeting, pp. 202-207, 2005.
Satoru Ihara and Fred C. Schweppe, “Physically Based Modeling of Cold Load Pickup,” IEEE Trans. Power Apparatus and Syst., vol. PAS-100, no. 9, pp. 4142-4150, 1981.
Richard E. Mortensen and Kevin P. Haggerty, “A Stochastic Computer Model for Heating and Cooling Loads,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1213-1219, 1988.
Guang Qu and M. Zaheeruddin, “Real-time Tuning of PI Controllers in HVAC Systems,” Int. J. Energy Res., vol. 28, pp. 1313-1327, 2004.
Jianbo Bai and Xiaosong Zhang, “A New Adaptive PI Controller and Its Application in HVAC Systems,” Energy Convers. Management, vol. 48, pp. 1043-1054, 2007.
Lester B. Lave and Kathleen Spees, “Demand Response and Electricity Market Efficiency,” Electr. J., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 69-85, 2007.
Young G. Jin, Tae -Seop Choi, Sung C. Park, and Yong T. Yoon, “The Design of an Optimal Demand Response Controller Under Real Time Electricity Pricing,” J. Electr. Eng. Technol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 612-618, 2013.
Arthur I. Cohen and Connie C. Wang, “An Optimization Method for Load Management Scheduling,“ IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1213-1219, 1988.
Deh-Chang Wei and Nanming Chen, “Air Conditioner Direct Load Control by Multi-Pass Dynamic Programming,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol.10, no.1, pp. 307-313, 1995.
Charles Kurucz, Steven Sim, and Dennis Brandt, “A Linear Programming Model for Reducing System Peak Through Customer Load Control Programs,” IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1817-1824, 1996.
Efthymios Karangelos and Francois Bouffard, “Towards Full Integration of Demand-Side Resources in Joint Forward Energy/Reserve Electricity Markets,“ IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 280-289, 2012.
Markets & Operations Data of PJM. Available online at http://www.pjm.com/markets-and-operations.aspx.