Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Children's Mobile Phone Use and Dosimetry
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Children's Mobile Phone Use and Dosimetry
Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Kwon, Jong-Hwa;
  PDF(new window)
Research results on possible effects caused by radiofrequency fields in children are limited because most of the studies published so far have focused on adults, rather than children. Mobile phone use is now widespread, even among younger children. If a biological risk due to mobile phone exposure is found, it might be greater in children because their bodies might be more sensitive to radiofrequency energy. The issue of a possible difference in sensitivity between adults and children begins with whether any difference exists physically in terms of electromagnetic absorption. This paper presents a review of recent publications on dosimetric comparisons between children and adults with respect to radiation from mobile phones. The issue of the health effects of mobile phone use is beyond the scope of the present review. Most of the dosimetry research on possible differences in power absorption between children and adults has been based on numerical modeling and analysis. The understanding of the results so far is presented and needed studies are described.
Adults;Children;Mobile Phone;Radio Frequency (RF);Specific Absorption Rate (SAR);
 Cited by
Numerical Implementation of Representative Mobile Phone Models for Epidemiological Studies, Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science, 2016, 16, 2, 87  crossref(new windwow)
International Telecommunication Union, "World Teecomunication/ICT Indicators database 2015 (19th Edition/June 2015)," 2014;

World Health Organization, Establishing a Dialogue on Risks from Electromagnetic Fields, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2002.

Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks. Health Effects of Exposure to EMF, Brussels, Belgium: European Commission; 2009.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, "ICNIRP statement on the guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields (up to 300 GHz)," Health Physics, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 257-258, 2009. crossref(new window)

Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Guidelines for EMF Grade, Target Equipment and Labelling (Notification No. 2013-29). Gwacheon, Korea; 2013.

International Agency for Research on Cancer, "IARC classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans," 2001;

P. J. Dimbylow and S. M. Mann, "SAR calculations in an anatomically realistic model of the head for mobile communication transceivers at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1537-1553, 1994. crossref(new window)

O. P. Gandhi, G. Lazzi, and C. M. Furse, "Electromagnetic absorption in the human head and neck for mobile telephones at 835 and 1,900 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1884-1897, 1996. crossref(new window)

M. J. Ackerman, "The visible human project," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 504-511, 1998. crossref(new window)

A. K. Lee, J. K. Byun, J. S. Park, H. D. Choi, and J. Yun, "Development of 7-year-old Korean child model for computational dosimetry," ETRI Journal, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 237-239, 2009. crossref(new window)

A. Christ, W. Kainz, E. G. Hahn, K. Honegger, M. Zefferer, E. Neufeld, et al., "The virtual family: development of surface-based anatomical models of two adults and two children for dosimetric simulations," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. N23-N38, 2010. crossref(new window)

F. Schonborn, M. Burkhardt, and N. Kuster, "Differences in energy absorption between heads of adults and children in the near field of sources," Health Physics, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 160-168, 1998. crossref(new window)

IEEE Recommended Practice for Determining the Peak Spatial-Average Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in the Human Head from Wireless Communications Devices: Measurement Techniques, IEEE Standard 1528-2013, 2013.

Human exposure to radio frequency fields from hand-held and body-mounted wireless communication devices - Human models, instrumentation, and procedures - Part 1: Procedure to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) for hand-held devices used in close proximity to the ear (frequency range of 300 MHz to 3 GHz), IEC 62209-1:2005, 2005.

E. van Rogen, E. W. Roubos, L. M. van Aernsbergen, G. Brussaard, J. Havenaar, F. B. Koops, et al., "Mobile phones and children: Is precaution warranted?," Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 142-144, 2005.

W. Kainz, A. Christ, T. Kellom, S. Seidman, N. Nikoloski, B. Beard, and N. Kuster, "Dosimetric comparison of the specific anthropomorphic mannequin to 14 anatomical head models using a novel definition for the mobile phone positioning," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 50, no. 14, pp. 3423-3445, 2005. crossref(new window)

B. B. Beard, W. Kainz, T. Onishi, T. Iyama, S. Watanabe, O. Fujiwara, et al., "Comparisons of computed mobile phone induced SAR in the SAM phantom to that in anatomically correct models of the human head," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 397-407, 2006. crossref(new window)

J. Wiart, A. Hadjem, M. F. Wong, and I. Bloch, "Analysis of RF exposure in the head tissues of children and adults," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 53, no. 13, pp. 3681-3695, 2008. crossref(new window)

A. K. Lee, H. D. Choi, and J. I. Choi, "Study on SARs in head models with different shapes by age using SAM model for mobile phone exposure at 835 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 302-312, 2007. crossref(new window)

A. K. Lee and J. Yun, "A comparison of specific absorption rates in SAM phantom and child head models at 835 and 1,900 MHz," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 619-627, 2011. crossref(new window)

A. Peyman, A. A. Rezazadeh, and C. Gabriel, "Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1617-1629, 2001. crossref(new window)

J. Wang, O. Fujiwara, and S. Watanabe, "Approximation of aging effect on dielectric tissue properties for SAR assessment of mobile telephones," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 408-413, 2006. crossref(new window)

A. Peyman, C. Gabriel, E. H. Grant, G. Vermeeren, and L. Martens, "Variation of the dielectric properties of tissues with age: the effect on the values of SAR in children when exposed to walkie-talkie devices," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 227-241, 2009. crossref(new window)

A. Christ, M. C. Gosselin, M. Christopoulou, S. Kuhn, and N. Kuster, "Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users," Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 1767-1783, 2010. crossref(new window)