Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
  • Volume 21, Issue 2,  2016, pp.138-146
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
  • DOI : 10.3746/pnf.2016.21.2.138
 Title & Authors
Optimization of Extraction of Cycloalliin from Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Using Principal Components Analysis
Lee, Hyun Jung; Suh, Hyung Joo; Han, Sung Hee; Hong, Jungil; Choi, Hyeon-Son;
  PDF(new window)
In this study, we report the optimal extraction conditions for obtaining organosulfur compounds, such as cycloalliin, from garlic by using principal component analysis (PCA). Extraction variables including temperature (), time (0.5~12 h), and pH (4~12) were investigated for the highest cycloalliin yields. The cycloalliin yield (5.5 mmol/mL) at pH 10 was enhanced by ~40% relative to those (~3.9 mmol/mL) at pH 4 and pH 6. The cycloalliin level at showed the highest yield among the tested temperatures (5.05 mmol/mL). Prolonged extraction times also increased cycloalliin yield; the yield after 12 h was enhanced ~2-fold (4 mmol/mL) compared to the control. Isoalliin and cycloalliin levels were inversely correlated, whereas a direct correlation between polyphenol and cycloalliin levels was observed. In storage for 30 days, garlic stored at (11 mmol/mL) showed higher levels of cycloalliin and polyphenols than those at , with the maximum cycloalliin level (13 mmol/mL) on day 15. Based on the PCA analysis, the isoalliin level depended on the extraction time, while cycloalliin amounts were influenced not only by extraction time, but also by pH and temperature. Taken together, extraction of garlic at , with an incubation time of 12 h, at pH 10 afforded the maximum yield of cycloalliin.
Allium sativum L.;garlic;organosulfur compound;cycloalliin;PCA;
 Cited by
Therapeutic Role of Functional Components in Alliums for Preventive Chronic Disease in Human Being, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017, 2017, 1  crossref(new windwow)
Block E, Dane AJ, Thomas S, Cody RB. 2010. Applications of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) in Allium chemistry. 2-Propenesulfenic and 2-propenesulfinic acids, diallyl trisulfane S-oxide, and other reactive sulfur compounds from crushed garlic and other Alliums. J Agric Food Chem 58: 4617-4625. crossref(new window)

Ichikawa M, Ide N, Ono K. 2006. Changes in organosulfur compounds in garlic cloves during storage. J Agric Food Chem 54: 4849-4854. crossref(new window)

Lancaster JE, Shaw ML. 1989. ${\gamma}$-Glutamyl peptides in the biosynthesis of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulphoxides (flavour precursors) in Allium. Phytochemistry 28: 455-460. crossref(new window)

Lawson LD, Gardner CD. 2005. Composition, stability, and bioavailability of garlic products used in a clinical trial. J Agric Food Chem 53: 6254-6261. crossref(new window)

Amagase H, Petesch BL, Matsuura H, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. 2001. Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. J Nutr 131: 955S-962S. crossref(new window)

Ide N, Ichikawa M, Ryu K, Yoshida J, Sasaoka T, Sumi SI, Sumiyoshi H. 2003. Antioxidants in processed garlic: tetrahydro-${\beta}$-carboline derivatives in aged garlic extract. In Food Factors in Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. Shahidi F, Ho CT, Watanabe S, Osawa T, eds. ACS Publications, Washington, DC, USA. Vol 851, p 250-263.

Ueda Y, Tsubuku T, Miyajima R. 1994. Composition of sulfur-containing components in onion and their flavor characters. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58: 108-110. crossref(new window)

Nagao T, Yamauchi-Sato Y, Sugihara A, Iwata T, Nagao K, Yanagita T, Adachi S, Shimada Y. 2003. Purification of conjugated linoleic acid isomers through a process including lipase-catalyzed selective esterification. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67: 1429-1433. crossref(new window)

Kendler BS. 1987. Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa): a review of their relationship to cardiovascular disease. Prev Med 16 : 670-685. crossref(new window)

Rahman K. 2003. Garlic and aging: new insights into an old remedy. Ageing Res Rev 2: 39-56. crossref(new window)

Xiao H, Parkin KL. 2002. Antioxidant functions of selected Allium thiosulfinates and S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides. J Agric Food Chem 50: 2488-2493. crossref(new window)

Bianchet MA, Erdemli SB, Amzel LM. 2008. Structure, function, and mechanism of cytosolic quinone reductases. Vitam Horm 78: 63-84. crossref(new window)

Agarwal RK, Dewar HA, Newell DJ, Das B. 1977. Controlled trial of the effect of cycloalliin on the fibrinolytic activity of venous blood. Atherosclerosis 27: 347-351. crossref(new window)

Allison GL, Lowe GM, Rahman K. 2006. Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit platelet aggregation through multiple mechanisms. J Nutr 136: 782S-788S. crossref(new window)

Harenberg J, Giese C, Zimmermann R. 1988. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 74: 247-249. crossref(new window)

Lawson LD, Wang ZJ, Hughes BG. 1991. ${\gamma}$-Glutamyl-S-alkylcysteines in garlic and other Allium spp.: precursors of agedependent trans-1-propenyl thiosulfinates. J Nat Prod 54: 436-444. crossref(new window)

Shen C, Parkin KL. 2000. In vitro biogeneration of pure thiosulfinates and propanethial-S-oxide. J Agric Food Chem 48: 6254-6260. crossref(new window)

Ichikawa M, Ide N, Yoshida J, Yamaguchi H, Ono K. 2006. Determination of seven organosulfur compounds in garlic by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 54: 1535-1540. crossref(new window)

Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. 1999. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. Methods Enzymol 299: 152-178. crossref(new window)

Stoll A, Seebeck E. 2006. Chemical investigations on alliin, the specific principle of garlic. In Advances in Enzymology and Related Areas of Molecular Biology. Nord FF, ed. Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York, NY, USA. Vol 11, p 377-400.

Ueda Y, Sakaguchi M, Hirayama K, Miyajima R, Kimizuka A. 1990. Characteristic flavor constituents in water extract of garlic. Agric Biol Chem 54: 163-169.

Anno T, Fujino M, Sawada H. 2000. Onion extract rich in sulfurized cyclic amino acid and process for producing the same. US Patent 6,468,565.

Mochizuki E, Nakayama A, Kitada Y, Saito K, Nakazawa H, Suzuki S, Fujita M. 1988. Liquid chromatographic determination of alliin in garlic and garlic products. J Chromatogr 455: 271-277. crossref(new window)

Rejano L, Sanchez AH, de Castro A, Montano A. 1997. Chemical characteristics and storage stability of pickled garlic prepared using different processes. J Food Sci 62: 1120-1123. crossref(new window)

Wissam Z, Ghada B, Wassim AW, Warid K. 2010. Effective extraction of polyphenols and proanthocyanidins from pomegranate's peel. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 4: 675-682.

Cheng A, Chen X, Wang W, Gong Z, Liu L. 2013. Contents of extractable and non-extractable polyphenols in the leaves of blueberry. Czech J Food Sci 31: 275-282. crossref(new window)

Sondheimer E. 1964. Chlorogenic acids and related depsides. Bot Rev 30: 667-712. crossref(new window)

Lee YR, Lee YK, Hwang IG, Woo KS, Han CS, Jeong HS. 2008. Evaluation of heat processing temperature and time on functional properties of garlic juice. J Food Sci Nutr 13: 327-333. crossref(new window)

Lim HK, Yoo ES, Moon JY, Jeon YJ, Cho SMK. 2006. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) fruits produced in Jeju island. Food Sci Biotechnol 15: 312-316.

Stewart AJ, Bozonnet S, Mullen W, Jenkins GI, Lean ME, Crozier A. 2000. Occurrence of flavonols in tomatoes and tomato-based products. J Agric Food Chem 48: 2663-2669. crossref(new window)

Kim YP, Lee GW, Oh HI. 2006. Optimization of extraction conditions for garlic oleoresin and changes in the quality characteristics of oleoresin during storage. Korean J Food Nutr 19: 219-226.

Fischer SL, Hampton RH, Albert WJ. 2014. A simple approach to guide factor retention decisions when applying principal component analysis to biomechanical data. Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 17: 199-203. crossref(new window)