Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Infant Crying Acoustic Characteristics Evoking Unpleasant Emotions in Mothers
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Infant Crying Acoustic Characteristics Evoking Unpleasant Emotions in Mothers
Kim, Yeoun-Jung;
  PDF(new window)
This study examines the infant crying acoustic characteristics likely to arouse negative emotions and distress in mothers. We used samples of infant crying from three situations (hunger, pain, and the mother's absence) in six healthy infants over six months. We played the recordings of infants crying to 90 mothers in the care of infants and had them self-evaluate emotions and feelings. In addition, the sounds were analyzed acoustically through a CSL4400 to analyze frequency, energy, total expiratory time, and the number of the expirations. In this study, cries due to pain and the absence of the mother caused more unpleasant emotions and irritation in comparison to the infant sounds of hunger. In particular, crying from the absence of the mother caused the most distress. An analysis of these sounds showed that crying in the situations of pain and the absence of the mother were strong in frequency, high energy, and prolonged. These results suggest a relation between infant crying acoustical characteristics and the feelings of distress by the mother.
infant crying acoustic characteristics;distress in mothers;
 Cited by
영아울음소리에 대한 임산 부부의 정서적 지각,김연정;정미라;

대한가정학회지, 2012. vol.50. 6, pp.89-98 crossref(new window)
Emotional Perceptions of Pregnant Women and Husbands on Babies' Cries, Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 2012, 50, 6, 89  crossref(new windwow)
Adachi, T., Murai, N., Okada, H., & Nihei, Y. (1985). Maternal perception of infant cries. Tohoko Psychol Folia, 33, 146-151.

Arakawa, A., Tanaka, D., & Iikura, Y. (2000). A method of classifying baby cries using frequency analyses Proc. Society conference IEICE; D-14-6.

Boero, D. L., Volpe, C., Marcello, A., Bianchi, C., & Lenti, C. (1998). Newborns crying in different contexts: Discrete or graded signals? Perceptual and Mortal Skills, 86, 1123-1140. crossref(new window)

Bowlby, J. (1977). Attachment. Tokyo: Iwasaki-sa.

Brewster, A. L., Nelson, J. P., & Hymel, K. P. (1998). Victim, perpetrator, family, and incident characteristics of 32 infant maltreatment deaths in the United States Air Force. Child Abuse and Neglect, 22(2), 91-101. crossref(new window)

Cuisinier, M., Janssen, H., & de Graauw K, et al. (1998). Predictors of maternal reactions to excessive crying of newborns: Findings from a prospective study in naturalistic situation. Early Development Parent, 7, 41-49. crossref(new window)

Frodi, A. (1985). When empathy fails: Aversive infant crying and child abuse. In: Lester, B.M., Boukydis CFZ, editors. Infant crying: Theoretical and research perspectives. New York: Plenum Press. 59-82.

Fuller, B., & Horii, Y. (1988). Spectral energy distribution in four types of infant vocalization. Communication Disorders, 19, 441-447.

Gustafson, G. E., & Green, J. A. (1991). On the importance of fundamental frequency and other acoustic features in cry perception and infant development. Child Development, 60, 772-780.

Gustafson, G. E., & Harris, K. L. (1990). Women's responses to young infants' cries. Developmental Psychology, 26, 144-152. crossref(new window)

Gustafson, G. E., & Green, J. A. (1989). On the importance of fundamental frequency and other acoustic features in cry perception and infant development. Child Development, 60, 772-780. crossref(new window)

Gustafson, G. E., Green, J. A., & Tamara Tomic (1984). Acoustic correlates of individuality in the cries of human infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 17(3), 311-324. crossref(new window)

Hofer, M., Shair, H., & Murowchick, E. (1989). Isolation distress and maternal comfort response of two-week-old rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 22(5), 553-566. crossref(new window)

Hotta, N., & Yamaguchi, T. (2005). A study on the mental state of mothers with 6-month-old child (part 1). Japanese Society of child Health, 64, 3-10.

Kim, Y., & Miyamoto, S. (2009). The research for the sound of infant and the infant-care stress of mother. Psychiatria et Neurologia Peadiarica Japoonica, 49, 61-70.

LaGasse, L. L., Neal, A. R., & Lester, B. M. (2005). Assessment of infant cry: Acoustic cry analysis and parental perception, Mental Retardation and Development disabilities research reviews, 11, 83-93. crossref(new window)

Leger, D. W., Thompson, R. A. & Merritt, J. A. & Benz, J. J. (1996). Adult perception of emotion Intensity in human infant cries: Effects of infant age and cry acoustics. Child Development, 67, 3238-3249.

Lester, B. M., & Boukydis, C. F. Z. (1985). Infant Crying: Theoretical and Research Perspectives. New York: Plenum.

Lester, B. M., Boukydis, C. F. Z., Garcia-Coll, C. T., Hole, W., & Peucker, M. (1992). Infantile colic: Acoustic cry characteristics, maternal perception of cry and temperament. Infant Behavior and Development, 15, 15-26. crossref(new window)

Maeda, K. (2008). Research on emotion to music. Retrieved 5 August 2008 From (in Japanese)

Michelsson et, al., Christenssion, K., Rothganger, H., & Winberg, J. (1996). Crying in separated and nonseparated newborns: sound spectrographic analysis. Acta Paediatr, 85, 471-475. crossref(new window)

Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare in Japan, (2008). Retrieved 20 June 2008 From

Murray, A. D. (1979). Infant crying as an elicitor of parental behavior: An examination of two models. Psychological bulletin, 86, 191-215. crossref(new window)

Newman, J. D., (2007). Neural circuits underlying crying and cry responding in mammals. Behavioural Brain Research, 182, 155-165. crossref(new window)

Okamoto, M., & Matsuoka, M. (2006). Causal model structure analysis of emotional unrest in first time mothers faced with persistent infant crying 6-7 weeks postpartum. Asian Nursing Research, 3(1), 1-14. crossref(new window)

Ostwald, P. (1963). Sound Making: The acoustic communication of emotion. Springfield, III.: Charles C Thomas.

Piaget (1968). Child Psychology: Revolve the development process of thing. Tokyo: Takizawa-sa.

Porter, F. L., Miller, R. H., & Marshall, R. E. (1986). Neonatal pains cries: Effect of circumcision on acoustic features and perceived urgency. Child Development, 57, 790-802. crossref(new window)

Protopapas, A., & Eimas, P. D. (1997). Perceptual differences in infant cries revealed by modifications of acoustic features. Acoustical Society of America, 102(6), 3723-3734. crossref(new window)

Zeifman, D. M. (2001). An ethological analysis of human infant crying: answering Tinbergen's four questions. Developmental Psychobiology. 39, 265-285. crossref(new window)

Zeifman, D. M. (2004). Acoustic features of infant crying related to intended caregiving intervention. Infant and child development, 13, 111-122. crossref(new window)

Zeskind, P. S. (1983). Cross-cultural differences in maternal perceptions of cries of low- and high- risk infants. Child Development, 54, 1119-1128. crossref(new window)

Zeskind, P. S., Klein, L., & Marshall, T.R. (1992). Adults' perceptions of experimental modifications of durations of pauses and expiratory sounds in infant crying. Developmental psychology, 28(6), 1153-1162. crossref(new window)

Zeskind, P. S., & Lester, B. M. (1978). Acoustic features and auditory perceptions of the cries of newborns with prenatal and perinatal complications. Child Development, 49, 580-589. crossref(new window)

Zeskind, P. S., & Lester, B. M. (2001). Analysis of infant crying. In: Singer LT, Zeskind PS, editors. Biobehavioral assessment of the infant. New York: Guilford Publications Inc. p 149-166.

Zeskind, P. S., & Marshall, T. R. (1988). The relation between variations in pitch and maternal perceptions of infant crying. Child Development, 59, 193-196. crossref(new window)

Zeskind, P. S., & Shingler, E. A. (1991). Child abusers' perceptual responses to newborn infant cries varying in pitch. Infant behavior & Development, 14, 335-347. crossref(new window)

Wasz-Hockert, O., Lind, J., Vuorenkoski, V., Partanen, T., & Valanne., E. (1968). The infant cry: A spectrographic and auditory analysis. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, (Vol 29). London: Spastics International Medical Publication.

Wood R. M. & Gustafson G. E. (2001). Infant crying and adults' anticipated caregiving responses: acoustic and contextual influences. Child Development, 72(5), 1287-1300. crossref(new window)