Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Predicting the Living Status of Homeless Youth: Living on the Street or in a Shelter
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Predicting the Living Status of Homeless Youth: Living on the Street or in a Shelter
Kang, Min-Ju;
  PDF(new window)
Information about the characteristics of street-living versus shelter-residing youth is vital for tailoring prevention and intervention efforts to the unique needs of runaway and homeless youth. The present study compared two samples of youth [street-living (n=73) versus shelter-residing (n=205)], between the ages of 14 to 17 years, on behavioral and emotional factors and service use. Based on the different characteristics of the two groups, the predictors explaining the living status of the runaways and homeless youth were explored. In general, street-living youth reported more severe substance use, depressive symptoms, and risky sexual behavior, but less lifetime service involvement compared to shelter-residing youth. The factors that predicted shelter-residing status were related to younger age, prior service care experience, more knowledge about HIV, and engaging in less delinquent and risky behavior. Given the little overlap among youth in service involvement and the greater severity faced by street-living youth, the conclusions highlight the need for increased funding and attention towards facilitating the ability of street-living youth to find and enter mental health and reintegration services.
Homeless youth;shelter-residing;street-living;substance use;risk behavior;service use;
 Cited by
Baer, J. S., Ginzler, J. A., & Peterson, P. L. (2003). DSMIV alcohol and substance abuse and dependence in homeless youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 5-14.

Baron (1999). Street youths and substance use: The role of background, street lifestyle, and economic factors. Youth & Society, 31, 3-26. crossref(new window)

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory: Manual (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Harcourt Brace.

Burt, M. R., Aron L. Y., Douglas T., Valente, J., Lee, E., & Iwen, B. (1999). Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Summary Report: Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Chamberlain, C. & MacKenzie, D. (2004). Youth Homelessness: Four Policy Proposals. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Final Report.

Clements, K., Gleghorn, A., Garcia, D., Katz, M., & Marx, R. (1997). A Risk Profile of Street Youth in Northern California: Implications for Gender-Specific Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 20, 343-353. crossref(new window)

Cooper, E. F. (2006). The Runaway and Homeless Youth Program: Administration, Funding, and Legislative Action. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

De Rosa, C. J., Montgomery, S. B., Kipke, M. D., Iverson, E., Ma, J. L., & Unger, J. B. (1999). Service utilization among homeless and runaway youth in Los Angeles, California: Rates and reasons. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 449-458. crossref(new window)

Elliot, D. S., & Huizinga, D. (1983). Social class and delinquent behavior in a national youth panel. Criminology: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 149-177.

Ensign, J., & Bell, M. (2004). Illness Experiences of Homeless Youth. Qualitative Health Research, 14, 1239-1254. crossref(new window)

Ensign J., & Gittelsohn, J. (1998). Health and access to care: Perspectives of homeless youth in Baltimore City, USA. Social Science and Medicine, 47, 2087-2099. crossref(new window)

George, C. (2010. 5. 14). Number of young runaways found to be more than thought. Retrieved December 5, 2011 from

Haber, M. G. & Toro, P. A. (2004). Homelessness Among Families, Children, and Adolescents: An Ecological-Developmental Perspective. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 7(3), 123-164. crossref(new window)

Halcon, L. L., & Lifson, A. R. (2004). Prevalence and predictors of sexual risks among homeless youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 71-80. crossref(new window)

Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). The social-psychological framework. In R. Jessor, & S. L. Jessor. Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A longitudinal study of youth (pp. 17-42). Academic Press.

Johnson, T. P., Aschkenasy, J. R., Herbers, M. R., & Gillenwater, S. A. (1996). Self-reported risk factors for AIDS among homeless youth. AIDS Education and Prevention, 8, 308-322.

Kann, L., Nelson, G. D., Jones, J. T., & Kolbe, L. J. (1989). Establishing a system of complementary school-based surveys to annually assess HIV-related knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors among adolescents. Journal of School Health, 59, 55-58. crossref(new window)

Kipke, M. D., Montgomery, S. B., Simon, T. R., & Iverson, E. F. (1997). Substance abuse disorders among runaways and homeless youth. Substance Use and Misuse, 32, 969-986. crossref(new window)

Kipke, M. D., O'Conner, S., Palmer, R. & MacKenzie R. G. (1995). Street Youth in Los Angeles: Profile of a Group at High Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine, 149, 513-319. crossref(new window)

Kurtz, P. D., Jarvis, S. V., & Kurtz, G. L. (1991). Problems of homeless youths: Empirical findings and human services issues. Social Work, 36, 309-314.

Lee, Y., & Choi, D. (2011. 2. 8). 6 out of 10 runaways are females. Retrieved December 5, 2011 from (Recited 2010 Korea National Police Agency data).

Lewit, E. M., & Baker, L. S. (1996). Homeless families and children. The Future of Children, 6, 146-158. crossref(new window)

McCarthy, B. & Hagan, J. (1995). Getting into Street Crime: the structure and process of criminal embeddedness. Social Science Research, 21(1), 63-95.

McKinney, S. B. (1987). Stewart B. McKinney Homelessness Assistance Act. Pub. L.100-77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482, et seq.

Miller, W. R., & DelBoca, F. K. (1994). Measurement of drinking behavior using the Form-90 family of instruments. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Supplement No. 12, 112-118.

Molnar, B. E., Shade, S. B., Kral, A. H., Booth, R. E., & Watters, J. K. (1998). Suicidal behavior and sexual/ physical abuse among street youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22, 213-222. crossref(new window)

National Coalition for the Homeless (2000). Poverty versus pathology: What's "chronic" about homelessness. Retrieved August 27, 2007, from

National Coalition for the Homeless (1999). Illegal to be homeless: The criminalization of homelessness in the United States. Retrieved August 17, 2007, from

National Youth Policy Institute (2009). Korean Survey on the Runaway of Youth and children in 2009.

Noh, H., Kim, H., & Lee, J. (2005). A study on the psychological factors that influence suicidal thoughts and behaviors of runaway youths. Studies on Korean Youth, 16, 5-34.

Office of Technology Assessment (1991). Adolescent Health. Volume 2: Background and the Effectiveness of Selected Prevention and Treatment Services and Indexes to Volumes I, II, and III, Chapter 14 Homelessness: Prevention and Services. (pp. 663-692). Washington D.C. : Congress of the U.S.

Patel, D. R., & Greydanus, D. E. (2002). Homeless adolescents in the United States. International Pediatrics, 17, 71-75.

Rhee, C., Noh, H., & Lee, J. (2004). A comparative study of psychological characteristics of street youths and shelter youths: With a focus on victimization and related factors. The Korean Journal of Youth Counseling, 12, 83-95.

Robertson, M. J., & Toro, P. A. (1999). Homeless youth: Research, intervention, and policy. In L. B. Fosburg, & D. L. Dennis (Eds.), Practical Lessons: The 1998 National Symposium on Homelessness Research (pp. 3.1-3.32). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Koopman, C., Haignere, C., & Davies, M. (1991). Reducing HIV sexual risk behaviors among runaway adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 266, 1237-1241. crossref(new window)

Rotheram-Borus, M. J., Song, J., Gwadz, M., Lee, M., Van Rossem, R. & Koopman, C. (2003). Reductions in HIV Risk among runaway youth. Prevention Science, 4, 173-187. crossref(new window)

Roy, E., Haley, N., Leclerc, P., Lemire, N., Boivin, J. F., Frappier, J. Y., & Claessens, C. (2000). Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviours among Montreal street youth. International Journal of STD & AIDS, 11, 241-247. crossref(new window)

Sameroff, A. J. (1983). Developmental systems: Contexts and evolution. In P.H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol I, History, Theory and Method. New York: Wiley.

Shaffer, D. (1992). The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children 2.3 Version. New York: Columbia University.

Slesnick, N., Kang, M., Bonomi, A., & Prestopnik, J. (2008). Six and twelve month outcomes among homeless youth accessing therapy and case management through an urban drop-in center. Health Services Research. 43, 211-229.

Slesnick, N., Prestopnik, J. L. (2005). Ecologically based family therapy outcome with substance abusing runaway adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 277-298. crossref(new window)

Susser, E., Moore R., & Link B. (1994). Risk factors for homelessness. Epidemiological Reviews, 15, 546-556.

Teare, J. F., Furst, D. W., Peterson, R. W., & Authier, K. (1992) Family reunification following shelter placement: Child, family, and program correlates. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 142-146. crossref(new window)

Tonigan, J. S., Miller, W. R., & Brown, J. M. (1997). The reliability of Form 90: An instrument for assessing alcohol treatment outcome. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 358-364.

Tsemberis, S. J., Moran. L., Shinn, M., Asmussen, S. M. & Shern, D. L. (2003). Consumer preference programs for individuals who are homeless and have psychiatric disabilities: A drop-in center and a supported housing program. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(3/4), 305-317. crossref(new window)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Runaway and Homeless Youth Program/Title 45, p. 300.

US House of Representatives, Education and Labor Committee (1992). Legislative history, juvenile justice and delinquency amendments. US Code of Law and Administrative News, House Report No. 102-756.

Unger, J. B., Simon, T. R., Newman, T. L. Montgomery, S. B., Kipke, M. D., & Albany, M. (1998). Early adolescent street youth: An overlooked population with unique problems and Service needs. Journal of Early Adolescence, 18, 325-348. crossref(new window)

Van Leeuwen, J. M., Hopfer, C., Hooks, S., White, R., Petersen, J., & Pirkopf, J. (2004). A snapshot of substance abuse among homeless and runaway youth in Denver, Colorado. Journal of Community Health, 29, 217-229. crossref(new window)

Wagner, L. S., Carlin, L., Cauce, A. M., & Tenner, A. (2001). A Snapshot of Homeless Youth in Seattle: Their Characteristics, Behaviors, and Beliefs about HIV Protective Strategies. Journal of Community Health, 26, 219-233. crossref(new window)

Westerberg, V. S., Tonigan, J. S., & Miller, W. R. (1998). Reliability of the Form 90D: An instrument for quantifying drug use. Substance Abuse, 19, 179-189.

Whitbeck, L. B. & Hoyt, D. R. (1999). Nowhere to grow: Homeless and runaway adolescents and their families. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.