Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Family Cultural Socialization Practices among International Adoptive Families
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Family Cultural Socialization Practices among International Adoptive Families
Lee, Jaegoo;
  PDF(new window)
Within the field of international adoption, little research has examined the involvement of fathers in cultural socialization practices. Using secondary data analysis with a sample of 332 international adoptive fathers and mothers, the present study examined international adoptive fathers' cultural socialization practices and compared these practices with those of international adoptive mothers. The results indicated that 1) family cultural socialization practices mainly engaged in by fathers were those that require little to no integration with people of the children's race and/or ethnicity, and 2) fathers' awareness or practices were found to be similar to those of mothers. This study illustrates the importance of continuing research on fathers' beliefs, attitudes, and practices in relation to the race and birth culture of their internationally adopted children.
International adoption;fathers' awareness and involvement;cultural socialization practices;
 Cited by
Berbery, M., & O'Brien, K. (2011). Predictors of white adoptive parents'cultural racial socialization behaviors with their Asian adopted children. Adoption Quarterly, 14(4), 284-304. crossref(new window)

Bebiroglu, N., & Pinderhughes, E. E., (2012). Mothers raising daughters: New complexities in cultural socialization for children adopted from China. Adoption Quarterly, 15(2), 116-139. crossref(new window)

Bergquist, K. J. S., Campbell, M. E., & Unrau, Y. A. (2003). Caucasian parents and Korean adoptees: A survey of parents' perceptions. Adoption Quarterly, 6(4), 41-58. crossref(new window)

Bramlett, M. D., & Radel, L. F. (2010). The National Survey of Adoptive Parents: An introduction to the special issue of Adoption Quarterly. Adoption Quarterly, 13(3-4), 147-156. crossref(new window)

Cho, B., Han, S., & Lee, J. (2005). A study on Korean-Chinese Children's Acculturation and Adjustment to the Mainstream Society. International Journal of Human Ecology, 6(1), 87-102.

Cho, B., & Lee, J. (2007). Generational differences in ethnicity maintenance of Korean-Chinese Ethnic Minority. International Journal of Human Ecology, 8(1), 95-107.

Crolley-Simic, J., & Vonk, M. E. (2008). Racial socialization practices of White mothers of international transracial adoptees. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 17(3), 301-318. crossref(new window)

Crolley-Simic, J., & Vonk, M. E. (2011). White international transracial adoptive mothers'reflections on race. Child and Family Social Work, 16(2), 1-10. crossref(new window)

Friedlander, M. L. (1999). Ethnic identity development of internationally adopted children and adolescents: Implications for family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 25(1), 43-60. crossref(new window)

Johnston, K. E., Swim, J. K, Saltsman, B. M., Deater-Deckard, K., & Petrill, S. A. (2007). Mothers'racial, ethnic, and cultural socialization of transracially adopted Asian children. Family Relations, 56(4), 390-402. crossref(new window)

Kwon, Y. (2012). Always learning from each other cultural identity development in two generations of Korean immigrant fathers. International Journal of Human Ecology, 13(1), 89-103. crossref(new window)

Lee, J., Vonk, M. E., & Crolley-Simic, J. (2015). A Model of factors related to cultural and racial socialization among transracial adoptive parents. Families in Society: Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 96(2), 141-147.

Lee, R. M., Grotevant, H. D., Hellerstedt, W. L., Gunnar, M. R., & the Minnesota International Adoption Project Team. (2006). Cultural socialization in families with internationally adopted children. Journal of Family Psychology, 20(4), 571-580. crossref(new window)

Massatti, R. R., Vonk, M. E., & Gregoire, T. K. (2004). Reliability and validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 14(1), 43-50 crossref(new window)

McRoy, R. G., Zurcher, L. A., Lauderdale, M. L., & Anderson, R. E. (1984). The identity of transracial adoptees. Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 65(1), 34-39.

McGinnis, H., Livingston, S., Ryan, S., & Howard, J. A. (2009, November). Beyond cultural camp: Promoting healthy identity formation in adoption. New York, NY: Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute. Retrieved from

Paulsen, C., & Merighi, J. R. (2009). Adoption preparedness, cultural engagement, and parental satisfaction in intercountry adoption. Adoption Quarterly, 12(1), 1-18. crossref(new window)

Rojewski, J. W., & Rojewski, J. L. (2001). Intercountry adoption from China: Examining cultural heritage and other postadoption issues. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Rojewski, J. W. (2005). A typical American family? How adoptive families acknowledge and incorporate Chinese cultural heritage in their lives. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 22(2), 133-164. crossref(new window)

Scroggs, P. H., & Heitfield, H. (2001). International adopters and their children: Birth culture ties. Gender Issues, 19(4), 3-30.

Shiao, J. L., & Tuan, M. H. (2008). Korean adoptees and the social context of ethnic exploration. American Journal of Sociology, 113(4), 1023-1066. crossref(new window)

Simon, R. J. & Alstein, H. (1992). Adoption, race, and identity. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Song, S. L., & Lee, R. M. (2009). The past and present cultural experiences of adopted Korean American adults. Adoption Quarterly, 12(1), 19-36. crossref(new window)

Thomas, K. A., & Tessler, R. C. (2007). Bicultural socialization among adopted families: Where there is a will, there is a way. Journal of Family Issues, 28(9), 1189-1219. crossref(new window)

U.S. Department of State (March 31, 2015). Intercountry Adoption. Retrieved from

Vashchenko, M., D'Aleo, M., & Pinderhughes, E. E. (2011). "Just beyond my front door": Public discourse experiences of children adopted from China. American Journal of Community Psychology, 49(1-2), 246-257.

Vonk, M. E. (2001). Cultural competence for transracial adoptive parents. Social Work, 46(3), 24-255.

Vonk, M. E., & Massatti, R. R. (2008). Factors related to transracial adoptive parents'levels of cultural competence. Adoption Quarterly, 11(3), 204-226. crossref(new window)

Vonk, M. E., Yun, S. H., Park, W., & Massatti, R. R. (2007). Transracial adoptive parents'thoughts about the importance of race and culture in parenting. In K. J. S. Bergquist, M. E. Vonk, D. S., Kim, & M. D. Feit (Eds.). International Korean adoption: A Fiftyyear History of Policy and Practice (pp. 22-33). Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.