Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Determination of 11 Phenolic Endocrine Disruptors using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Selected Ion Monitoring in Five Selected Wastewater Influents
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 13, Issue 4,  2008, pp.216-223
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2008.13.4.216
 Title & Authors
Determination of 11 Phenolic Endocrine Disruptors using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry-Selected Ion Monitoring in Five Selected Wastewater Influents
Kim, Hyub;
  PDF(new window)
An efficient method for the simultaneous determination of eleven phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) present in wastewater influent samples was described. The 11 phenolic EDCs including alkylphenols, chlorophenols, and bisphenol A were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) following two work-up methods for comparison; isobutoxycarbonyl (isoBOC) derivatization and tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatization. The wastewater influent samples containing the 11 EDCs were adjusted to pH 2 with and then cleaned up with n-hexane. Next, they were subjected to solid-phase extraction (SPE) with XAD-4 resin and subsequently converted to isoBOC or TBDMS derivatives for sensitivity analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC/MSSIM). Following isoBOC derivatization and TBDMS derivatization, the recoveries were 86.6-105.2% and 97.6-142.7%, the limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the 11 phenolic EDCs for SIM was 0.001-0.050 ng/mL and 0.003-0.050 ng/mL, and the SIM responses were linear with the correlation coefficient varying by 0.9717-0.9995 and 0.9842-0.9980, respectively. When these methods were applied to five selected wastewater influent samples, for isoBOC derivatization and TBDMS derivatization the ranges of concentration detected were 0.2-99.6 ng/mL and 0.4-147.4 ng/mL, respectively.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals;IsoBOC;TBDMS;Wastewater influent samples;
 Cited by
Japan Environment Agency. Strategic Programs on Environmental, JEA, 68-77 (1998)

Lagana, A., Bacaloni, A., Leva, I. D., Faberi, A., Fago, G., and Marine, A., "Analytic-al methodologies for determining the occurrence of endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage treatment plants and natural waters," Analytica Chimica Acta., 501, 79-88 (2004) crossref(new window)

Braun, P., Moeder, M., Schrader, St., Popp, P., Kuschk, P., and Engewald, W., "Trace analysis of technical nonylphenol, bisphenol A and 17$\alpha$-ethinylestradiol in wastewater using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry," J. Chromatogr. A, 988, 41-51 (2003) crossref(new window)

Holger M. K. and Karlheinz B., "Determination of endorcrine-disrupting phenolic compounds and estrogens in surface and drinking water by HRGC-(NCI)-MS in the picogram per liter range," Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 3201-3206 (2001) crossref(new window)

Benjamin L. L. T, Darry W. H., Jochen F. M., Frederic D. L. L., Louis A. T., and Heather F. C., "Comprehensive study of endocrine disrupting compounds using grab and passive sampling at selected wastewater treatment plants in South East Queensland, Australia," Australia. Environ. Inter, 3, 654-669 (2007)

Espejo, R., Valter, K., Simona, M., Janin, Y., and Arrizabalaga, P., "Determination of nineteen 4-alkylphenol endocrine disrupters in Geneva municipal sewage wastewater," J. Chromatogr. A, 976, 335-343 (2002) crossref(new window)

Pocurull, E., Calull, M., Marce, R. M., and Borrull, F., "Determination of phenolic compounds at low $\mu$g 1-1 levels by various solid-phase extractions followed by liquid chromatography and diode-array detection," J. Chromatogr. A, 719, 105-112 (1996) crossref(new window)

Pocurull, E., Sanchez, G., Borrull, F., and Marce, R. M., "Automated on-line trace enrichment and determination of phenolic compounds in environmental waters by high-performance liquid chromatography," J. Chromatogr. A, 696, 31-39 (1995) crossref(new window)

Landzettel, W. J., Hargis, K. J., Caboot, J. B., Adkins, K. L., Strein, T. G., Veening, H., and Becker, H. D. "Highperfor-mance liquid chromatographic separation and detection of phenols using 2-(9-anthrylethyl) chloroformate as a fluorophoric derivatizing reagent," J. Chromatogr. A, 718, 45-51 (1995) crossref(new window)

Herterrich, R., "Gas chromatographic determination of nitrophenols in atmospheric liquid water and airborne particulates," J. Chromatogr., 549, 313-324 (1991) crossref(new window)

Weber, L., "Gas chromatographic determination of urinary phenol conjugates after acid hydrolysis/extractive acetylation," J. Chromatogr., 574, 349-351 (1992) crossref(new window)

Ballesteros, E., Gallego, M., and Yalcarcel, M., "Automatic gas chromatographic determination of N-methylcarbamates in milk with electron capture detection," Anal. Chem., 65, 1773-1778 (1993) crossref(new window)

Kumar, A., and Panwar, A., "Gas chromatographic separation of isomeric aminophenols, aniline, phenol, benzoquinone and azobenzene on a HP-1 capillary column," Mikrochim. Acta, 111, 177-182 (1993) crossref(new window)

Cooper, J. F., Tourte, J., and Gros, P., "Determination of pentachlorophenol residues in wine and corks by solvent extraction methodology and specific gas chromatography detection," Chromatographia, 38, 147-150 (1994) crossref(new window)

Pendergrass, S. M., "An Alternative Method for the Analysis of Phenol and o-, m-, and p-Cresol by Capillary GC/ FID," Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 55, 1051-1054 (1994) crossref(new window)

Turnes, M. I., Rodriguez, I., Mejuto, M. C., and Cela, R. "Determination of chlorophenols in drinking water samples at the subnanogram per millilitre level by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection," J. Chromatogr. A, 683, 21-29 (1994) crossref(new window)

Kim, H., Hong, J. K., Kim Y. H., and Kim, K. R. "Combined isobutoxycarbonylation and tert-butyldimethylsilylation for the GC/MS-SIM detection of alkylphenols, chlorophenols and bisphenol A in Mackerel samples," Archives of Pharmacal Research, 26, 697-705 (2003) crossref(new window)

Kim K. R., and Kim, H., "Gas chromatographic profiling and screening for phenols as isobutoxycarbonyl derivatives in aqueous samples," J. Chromatogr. A, 866, 87-96 (2000) crossref(new window)

Heberer, T., and Stan, H. J., "Detection of more than 50 substituted phenols as their t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry," Anal, Chimical Acta, 341, 21-34 (1997) crossref(new window)

Boyd, J., "Indentification and quantification of mono-, diand trihydroxybenzenes (phenols) at trace concentrations in seawater by aqueous acetylation and gas chromatographicmass spectrometric analysis," J. Chromatogr., 662, 281-292 (1994) crossref(new window)

Shin, H. S., Park, C. H., Park, S. J., and Pyo, H. S., "Sensitive determination of bisphenol A in environmental water by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection after cyanomethylation," J. Chromatogr. A, 912, 119-125 (2001) crossref(new window)

Boyd, Th. J., "Indentification and quantification of mono-,di- and trihydroxybenzenes (phenols) at trace concentrations in seawater by aqueous acetylation and gas chromatographic- mass spectrometric analysis," J. Chromatogr., 662, 281-292 (1994) crossref(new window)

Cline, R. E., Todd, G. D., Ashley, D. L., Grainger, J., McCraw, J. M., Alley C.C., and Hill, R. H., "Gas chromatographic and spectral properties of pentafluorobenzyl derivatives of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and phenolic pesticides and metabolites," J. Chromatogr. Sci., 28, 167-174 (1990) crossref(new window)

Tulp, M. T. M., and Hutzinger, O., "Use of ethyl ethers, deuteriomethyl ethers and cyclic n-butylboronates of hydroxychlorobiphenyls in identification of metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls," J. Chromatogr., 139, 51-59 (1977) crossref(new window)

Blackburn M. A., and Waldock M. J., "Concentration of alkylphenols in rivers and estuaries in England and Wales," Wat. Res., 29(7), 623-1629 (1995)

Leusch F. D. L., Chapman H. F., Heuval M. R., Tan B. L. L., Gooneratne S. R., Tremblay L. A., Gooneratne S. R., and Tremblay L. A., "Bioassay-derived androgenic and estrogenic activity in municipal sewage in Australia and New Zealand," Eco. Environ. Safety, 65, 403-411 (2006) crossref(new window)