Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Modeling the Fate of Priority Pharmaceuticals in Korea in a Conventional Sewage Treatment Plant
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Environmental Engineering Research
  • Volume 14, Issue 3,  2009, pp.186-194
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
  • DOI : 10.4491/eer.2009.14.3.186
 Title & Authors
Modeling the Fate of Priority Pharmaceuticals in Korea in a Conventional Sewage Treatment Plant
Kim, Hyo-Jung; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Kwon, Jung-Hwan;
  PDF(new window)
Understanding the environmental fate of human and animal pharmaceuticals and their risk assessment are of great importance due to their growing environmental concerns. Although there are many potential pathways for them to reach the environment, effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are recognized as major point sources. In this study, the removal efficiencies of the 43 selected priority pharmaceuticals in a conventional STP were evaluated using two simple models: an equilibrium partitioning model (EPM) and STPWIN program developed by US EPA. It was expected that many pharmaceuticals are not likely to be removed by conventional activated sludge processes because of their relatively low sorption potential to suspended sludge and low biodegradability. Only a few pharmaceuticals were predicted to be easily removed by sorption or biodegradation, and hence a conventional STP may not protect the environment from the release of unwanted pharmaceuticals. However, the prediction made in this study strongly relies on sorption coefficient to suspended sludge and biodegradation half-lives, which may vary significantly depending on models. Removal efficiencies predicted using the EPM were typically higher than those predicted by STPWIN for many hydrophilic pharmaceuticals due to the difference in prediction method for sorption coefficients. Comparison with experimental organic carbon-water partition coefficients () revealed that log KOW-based estimation used in STPWIN is likely to underestimate sorption coefficients, thus resulting low removal efficiency by sorption. Predicted values by the EPM were consistent with limited experimental data although this model does not include biodegradation processes, implying that this simple model can be very useful with reliable Koc values. Because there are not many experimental data available for priority pharmaceuticals to evaluate the model performance, it should be important to obtain reliable experimental data including sorption coefficients and biodegradation rate constants for the prediction of the fate of the selected pharmaceuticals.
Risk assessment;Sorption;Biodegradation;Veterinary medicines;Predicted exposure concentration (PEC);
 Cited by
The effect of dairy sewage sludge amendment on repellency and hydraulic conductivity of soil aggregates from two depths of Eutric Cambisol, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2015, 178, 2, 270  crossref(new windwow)
Boxall, A. B. A., Kolpin, D. W., Halling-Sørensen, B., and Tolls, J., “Are veterinary medicines causing environmental risks?,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 286-294A (2003). crossref(new window)

Cabello, F. C., “Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem of human and animal health and for the environment,” Environ. Microbiol., 8, 1137-1144 (2006). crossref(new window)

Oaks, J. L., Gilbert, M., Virani, M. Z., Watson, R. T., Meteyer, C. U., Rideout, B. A., Shivaprasad, H. L., Ahmed, S., Chaudhry, M. J., Arshad, M., Mahmood, S., Ali, A., and Khan, A. A., “Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan,” Nature, 427, 630-633 (2004). crossref(new window)

Oh, S. J., Park, J., Lee, M. J., Park, S. Y., Lee J.-H., and Choi, K., “Ecological hazard assessment of major veterinary benzimidazoles: acute and chronic toxicities to aquatic microbes and invertebrates,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem, 25, 2221-2226 (2006). crossref(new window)

Agersø, Y., Wulff, G., Vaclavik, E., Halling-Sørensen, B., and Jensen, L. B., “Effect of tetracycline residues in pig manure slurry on tetracycline-resistant bacteria and resistance gene tet(M) in soil microcosms,” Environ. Int., 32, 876-82 (2006). crossref(new window)

Ternes, T. A., “Occurence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers,” Water Res., 32, 3245-3260 (1998). crossref(new window)

Kolpin, D. W., Furlong, E. T., Meyer, M. T., Thurman, E. M., Zaugg, S. D., Barber, L. B., and Buxton, H. T., “Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999-2000: a national reconnaissance,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1202-1211 (2002). crossref(new window)

Han, G. H., Hur, H. G., and Kim, S. D., “Ecotoxicological risk of pharmaceuticals from wastewater treatment plants in Korea: occurrence and toxicity to Daphnia magna,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 25, 265-271 (2006). crossref(new window)

Park, J., An Approach for Developing Aquatic Environmental Risk Assessment Frameworks for Pharmaceuticals in Korea, KEI Research Report RE-05 (2006).

Boxall, A. B. A., Fogg, L. A., Kay, P., Blackwell, P. A., Pemberton, E. J., and Croxford, A., “Prioritisation of veterinary medicines in the UK environment,” Toxicol. Lett, 142, 207-218 (2003). crossref(new window)

Lee, Y.-J., Lee, S.-E., Lee, D. S., Kim, Y.-H., “Risk assessment of human antibiotics in Korean aquatic environment,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 26, 216-221 (2008). crossref(new window)

Petersen, A., Andersen, J. S., Kaewmak, T., Somsiri, T., and Dalsgaard, A., “Impact of integrated fish farming on antimicrobial resistance in a pond environment,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68, 6036-6042 (2002). crossref(new window)

Hirsch, R., Ternes, T., Haberer, K., and Kratz, K. L., “Occurrence of antibiotics in the aquatic environment,” Sci. Total Environ., 225, 109-118 (1999). crossref(new window)

Ministry of Environment, http://me.go. kr/kor/notice/notice_ 02_01.jsp?id=notice_02&mode=view&idx=168330 (2009).

Boxall, A. B. A., Fogg, L. A., Blackwell, P. A., Kay, P., Pemberton, E. J., and Croxford, A., “Veterinary medicines in the environment,” Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 180, 1-91 (2004). crossref(new window)

Capleton, A. C., Courage, C., Rumsby, P., Holmes, P., Stutt, E., Boxall, A. B. A., and Levy, L. S., “Prioritising veterinary medicines according to their potential indirect human exposure and toxicity profile,” Toxicol. Lett., 163, 213-223 (2006). crossref(new window)

Richardson, M. L. and Bowron, J. M., “The fate of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a review,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 37, 1-12 (1985). crossref(new window)

Heidler, J. and Halden, R. U., “Meta-analysis of mass balances examining chemical fate during wastewater treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 6324-6332 (2008). crossref(new window)

Kim, Y., Jung, J., Kim, M., Park, J., Boxall, A. B. A., and Choi, K., “Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea,” Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 26, 167-176 (2008). crossref(new window)

Kim, M. H., Park, J., Kim, Y. H., and Choi, K., “Prioritizing human use antibiotics for environmental health management and estimating their environmental concentrations in Korean waterway,” Korean J. Environ. Health, 32, 462- 468 (2006).

Lee, K., Yong, D., Yum, J. H., Lim, Y. S., Kim, H. S., Lee, B. K., and Chong, Y., “Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi in Korea,” Antimicrob. Agent. Chemotherapy, 48, 4130-4135 (2004). crossref(new window)

Sangster Research Laboratory. LOGKOW©, A databank of evaluated octanol-water partition coefficient (log P), (2009).

Hansch. C., Leo, A., and Hoekman, D., Exploring QSAR: hydrophobic, electronic, and steric constants, ACS Professional Reference (1995).

Stuer-Lauridsen, F., Birkved, M., Hansen, L. P., Holten- Lützhøft, H. C., and , Halling-Sørensen, B., “Environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals in Denmark after normal therapeutic use,” Chemosphere, 40, 783-793, (2000). crossref(new window)

McFarland, J. W., Berger, C. M., Froshauer, S. A., Hayashi S. F., Hecker, S. J., Jaynes, B. H., Jefson, M. R., Kamicker, B. J., Lipinski, C. A., Lundy, K. M., Reese, C. P., and McFarland, C. B. V., “Quantitative structure-activity relationships among macrolide antibacterial agents: in vitro and in vivo potency against Pasteurella multicida,” J. Med. Chem., 40, 1340-1346 (1997). crossref(new window)

Mottier, M. L., Alvrez, L. I., Pis, M. A., and Lanusse, C. E., “Transtegumental of diffusion of benzimidazole anthelmintics into Moniezia benedeni: correlation with their octanolwater partitioning coefficient,” Exp. Parasitol., 103, 1-7 (2003). crossref(new window)

Takacs-Novak, K., Jozan, M., and Szasz, G., “Lipophilicity of amphoteric molecules expressed by the true partition coefficient,” Int. J. Pharm., 113, 47-55 (1995). crossref(new window)

Yamamoto, H., Hayashi, A., Nakamura, Y., and Sekizawa, J., “Fate and partitioning of selected pharmaceuticals on aquatic environment,” Env. Sci., 12, 347-358 (2005).

Boxall, A. B. A., Johnson, P., Smith, E. J., Sinclair, C. J., Stutt, E., and Levy, L. S., “Uptake of Veterinary Medicines from Soils into Plants,” J. Agric. Food Chem., 54, 2288- 2297. (2006). crossref(new window)

Wightwick, A. and Allinson, G., Compilation of agrochemicals registered for use in Victoria and their physical-chemical properties, Department of Primary Industries, The State of Victoria, Australia (2008).

Carballa, M., Fink, G., Omil, F., Lema, J. M., and Ternes, T., 'Determination of the solid-water distribution coefficient (Kd) for pharmaceuticals, estrogens and musk fragrances in digested sludge,' Water Res., 42, 287-295 (2008). crossref(new window)

Rabølle, M. and Spliid, N. H., “Sorption and mobility of metronidazole, olaquindox, oxytetracycline and tylosin in soil,” Chemosphere, 40, 715-722 (2000). crossref(new window)

Meylan, W. M. and Howard, P. H., “Atom/fragment contribution method for estimating octanol-water partition coefficients,” J. Pharm. Sci., 84, 83-92 (1995). crossref(new window)

Meylan, W. M., Howard, P.H., and Boethling, R. S., “Molecular topology/fragment contribution method for predicting soil sorption coefficients,” Environ. Sci. Tech., 26, 1560- 1567 (1992). crossref(new window)

Clark, B., Henry, J. G., and Mackay, D., “Fugacity analysis and model of organic chemical fate in a sewage treatment plant,” Environ. Sci. Tech., 29, 1488-1494 (1995). crossref(new window)

Fent, K., Weston, A. A., and Caminada, D., “Ecotoxicology of human pharmaceuticals,” Aquat. Toxicol., 76, 122-159 (2006). crossref(new window)

Schwarzenbach, R. P., Gschwend, P. M., and Imboden, D.M., Environmental Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA (2003).

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Estimation Program Interface (EPI) Suite ver. 4.00. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxic's, Washington, DC, USA (2008).

Seth, R., Webster, E., and Mackay, D., “Continued development of a mass balance model of chemical fate in a sewage treatment plant,” Water Res., 42, 595-604 (2008). crossref(new window)

Yamamoto, H., Liljestrand, H. M., Shimizu, Y., Morita, M., “Effects of physical-chemical characteristics on the sorption of selected endocrine disruptors by dissolved organic matter surrogates,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 2646-2657 (2003). crossref(new window)

Sabljic, A., “Predictions of the nature and strength of soil sorption of organic pollutants by molecular topology,” J. Agric. Food Chem., 32, 243-246 (1984). crossref(new window)

Sabljic, A. “On the prediction of soil sorption coefficients of organic pollutants from molecular structure: application of molecular topology model,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 21, 358-66 (1987). crossref(new window)

Lin, A.Y., Yu, T., and Lateef, S. K., “Removal of pharmaceuticals in secondary wastewater treatment processes in Taiwan,” J. Hazard. Mater. (2009).

Yamamoto, H., Nakamura, Y., Nakamura, Y., Kitani, C., Imari, T., Sekizawa, J., Takao, Y., Yamashita, N., Hirai, N., Oda, S., and Tatarazako, N., “Initial ecological risk assessment of eight selected human pharmaceuticals in Japan,” Environ. Sci., 14, 177-193 (2009).

Khan, S. and Ongerth, J., “Occurrence and Distribution of Pharmaceutical Residualsin Bay Sewage and Sewage Treatment,” Bay Area Clean Water Agency #8012-17 (2005).

Lindberg, R. H., Olofsson, U., Rendahl, P., Johansson, M. I., Tysklind, M., and Andersson, B. A., “Behavior of fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim during mechanical, chemical, and active sludge treatment of sewage water and digestion of sludge,” Environ. Sci. Tech., 40, 1042-1048 (2006). crossref(new window)

Golet, E. M., Xifra, I., Siegrist, H., Alder, A. C., and Giger, W., “Environmental exposure assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents from sewage to soil,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 3243-3249 (2003). crossref(new window)

Gobel, A., Thomsen, A., McArdell, C. S., Joss, A., and Giger, W., “Occurrence and sorption behavior of sulfonamides, macrolides, and trimethoprim in activated sludge treatment,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 3981-3989 (2005). crossref(new window)