Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Engineering
DOI : 10.4491/eer.2010.15.2.063
Title & Authors
Application of Response Surface Method as an Experimental Design to Optimize Coagulation Tests Trinh, Thuy Khanh; Kang, Lim-Seok;
In this study, the response surface method and experimental design were applied as an alternative to conventional methods for the optimization of coagulation tests. A central composite design, with 4 axial points, 4 factorial points and 5 replicates at the center point were used to build a model for predicting and optimizing the coagulation process. Mathematical model equations were derived by computer simulation programming with a least squares method using the Minitab 15 software. In these equations, the removal efficiencies of turbidity and total organic carbon (TOC) were expressed as second-order functions of two factors, such as alum dose and coagulation pH. Statistical checks (ANOVA table, and value, model lack of fit test, and p value) indicated that the model was adequate for representing the experimental data. The p values showed that the quadratic effects of alum dose and coagulation pH were highly significant. In other words, these two factors had an important impact on the turbidity and TOC of treated water. To gain a better understanding of the two variables for optimal coagulation performance, the model was presented as both 3-D response surface and 2-D contour graphs. As a compromise for the simultaneously removal of maximum amounts of 92.5% turbidity and 39.5% TOC, the optimum conditions were found with 44 mg/L alum at pH 7.6. The predicted response from the model showed close agreement with the experimental data ( values of 90.63% and 91.43% for turbidity removal and TOC removal, respectively), which demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach in achieving good predictions, while minimizing the number of experiments required.
Coagulation tests;Drinking water treatment;Experimental design;Optimizing coagulation;Response surface methodology;
Impact of pulsed ultrasound on bacteria reduction of natural waters, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2015, 27, 137
Optimization of high hardness perforated steel armor plates using finite element and response surface methods, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 2016, 1
Assessing the application and downstream effects of pulsed mode ultrasound as a pre-treatment for alum coagulation, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2016, 31, 7
Combating Accidental Microbial Episodes by Back-Ground Chlorine Residuals in a Scaled-up Distribution Network (Rig) Using a Central Composite Design (CCD), International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 2015, 6, 2, 122
Preparation, characterization and kinetic behavior of supported copper oxide catalysts on almond shell-based activated carbon for oxidation of toluene in air, Journal of Porous Materials, 2015, 22, 1, 101
Optimization of arsenic removal from pyrite ash by NaOH leaching using central composite design, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, 57, 18, 8575
Statistical Design for Formulation Optimization of Hydrocortisone Butyrate-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles, AAPS PharmSciTech, 2014, 15, 3, 569
Extraction Optimization and Functional Properties of Proteins from Kiwi Fruit(Actinidia chinensisPlanch.) Seeds, International Journal of Food Properties, 2014, 17, 7, 1612
Neuro-genetic multi-objective optimization and computer-aided design of pantoprazole molecularly imprinted polypyrrole sensor, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 2014, 202, 240
Analysis of Siloxane Adsorption Characteristics Using Response Surface Methodology, Environmental Engineering Research, 2012, 17, 2, 117
Activity of Pt/MnO2 electrode in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution, Separation and Purification Technology, 2015, 154, 281
Investigating natural organic carbon removal and structural alteration induced by pulsed ultrasound, Science of The Total Environment, 2016, 541, 1019
Arsenic Removal from Water by Sugarcane Bagasse: An Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, 2014, 225, 7
Factorial optimization and kinetic studies of coagulation–flocculation of brewery effluent by crab shell coagulant, Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 2016, 4, 1, 36
Optimization of petroleum refinery effluent treatment in a UASB reactor using response surface methodology, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2011, 197, 26
Determining the Best Composition of a Ni–Fe/Al2O3Catalyst used for the CO2Hydrogenation Reaction by Applying Response Surface Methodology, Chemical Engineering Communications, 2016, 203, 3, 372
Response surface methodology approach to optimize coagulation-flocculation process using composite coagulants, Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2013, 30, 3, 649
Application of response surface methodology to water/wastewater treatment using Coccinia indica, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2014, 52, 34-36, 6403
Photodegradation of Erythromycin antibiotic by γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanocomposite: Response surface methodology modeling and optimization, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2016, 214, 378
Optimization of Ultrasonic Extraction of Phenolic Antioxidants from Green Tea Using Response Surface Methodology, Molecules, 2013, 18, 11, 13530
Optimization of partial nitritation in a continuous flow internal loop airlift reactor, Bioresource Technology, 2013, 147, 516
Optimisation of beef tenderisation treated with bromelain using response surface methodology (RSM), Agricultural Sciences, 2013, 04, 05, 65
Extraction Optimization for ObtainingArtemisia capillarisExtract with High Anti-Inflammatory Activity in RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells, BioMed Research International, 2015, 2015, 1
Simultaneous extraction, optimization, and analysis of flavonoids and polyphenols from peach and pumpkin extracts using a TLC-densitometric method, Chemistry Central Journal, 2015, 9, 1
UV-Initiated Polymerization of Cationic Polyacrylamide: Synthesis, Characterization, and Sludge Dewatering Performance, The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 2013, 1
Employing Response Surface Methodology for the Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Lutein and β-Carotene from Spinach, Molecules, 2015, 20, 4, 6611
Effects of carrageenan and jackfruit puree on the texture of goat's milk Dadih using response surface methodology, International Journal of Dairy Technology, 2013, 66, 3, 424
Extraction Optimization of Polyphenols from Waste Kiwi Fruit Seeds (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties, Molecules, 2016, 21, 7, 832
Arsenic Removal from Natural Groundwater by Electrocoagulation Using Response Surface Methodology, Journal of Chemistry, 2014, 2014, 1
Clearsby JL, Dharmarajah AH, Sindt GL, Baumann ER. Design and operation guidelines for optimization of the high-rate filtration process: plant survey results. Denver, CO: AWWA Research Foundation; 1989.
Pernitsky DJ. Coagulation 101. Alberta Water and Wastewater Operators Association (AWWOA) Annual Seminar; 2004; Alberta, Canada.
Mason RL, Gunst RF, Hess JL. Statistical design and analysis of experiments with applications to engineering and science. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2003.
Khuri AI, Cornell JA. Responses surfaces: design and analyses. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996.
Khuri AI. An overview of the use of generalized linear models in response surface methodology. Nonlinear Anal. 2001;47:2023-2034.
Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE, Eaton AD. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environmental Federation; 1998.
Montgomery DC. Design and analysis of experiments. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2001. p. 427-510.
Box GEP, Hunter JS. Multi-factor experimental designs for exploring response surfaces. Ann. Math. Statist. 1957;28:195-241.
NIST/SEMATECH e-handbook of statistical method [Inter net]. Available from: http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook.
Haber A, Runyun RP. General statistics. 3rd ed. Reading, MA: Addision-Wesley; 1977.
Faust SD, Aly OM. Removal of particulate matter by coagulation. In: Faust SD, Aly OM, eds. Chemistry of water treatment, 2nd ed. Florida: CRC Press; 1998. p. 217-270.
Kim SH. Enhanced coagulation: determination of controlling criteria and an effect on turbidity removal. Environ. Eng. Res. 2005;10:105-111.